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Lecture 8

NUTR 244 Lecture 8: 09/15/16 blood glucose regulation/terminology, glycemic load, role of carbs, sugars, complex carbs, fiber, sweeteners

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Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 244
Professor
Susanne Anderson- Riedel

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09/15/16
Blood Glucose Regulation
Closely regulated
Hormones control blood glucose levels
oInsulin
oGlucagon
oEpinephrine and Norepinephrine
Secreted by the adrenal glands and nerve endings when there is low blood
glucose
Glycogenolysis
Responsible for “fight-or-flight”
oCortisol and Growth hormone
Secreted by adrenal glands to act on the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue
Cortisol increases gluconeogenesis and decreases muscle glucose use
Growth hormone decreases muscle glucose uptake, increases fatty acid
mobilization and use, and increases liver glucose output
Blood Glucose Regulation Terminology
Glycogenesis – formation of glycogen from glucose molecules
Lipogenesis – formation of triglyceride from excess glucose molecules (stored in liver
and adipose tissue)
Glycogenolysis – breakdown of glycogen -> glucose
Gluconeogenesis – conversion of amino acids to glucose by the liver
Glycemic Index
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09/15/16
A rating of the potential of foods to raise blood glucose and insulin levels
High GI foods cause an increase in blood glucose which leads to a large increase in
insulin followed by a big drop in sugar
Low GI cause low to moderate fluctuations in blood glucose
Not easy to predict
Glycemic Load
Used to determine the effect of a food or meal on a person’s glucose response
Grams of carbs in a food are multiplied byu the glycemic index, then divided by 100
GI and glycemic load remain controversial
Evidence of health benefits is weak
The Role of Carbohydrates
Provide energy = 4kcal/g
oPrimary fuel for brain, nerve cells
Only fuel source for red blood cells
oDaily activity is fueled by both carbs and fats
oGlucose is especially important for energy during exercise (esp. aerobic exercise)
If There Is Insufficient energy from carbs
oFat breakdown (ketosis) -> ketones
Excess ketones increase blood acidity and cause ketoacidosis
oProtein breakdown (gluconeogenesis) -> amino acids -> glucose
How Much Carbohydrates do we need?
RDA = 130g per day (a bagel)
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Description
09/15/16 Blood Glucose Regulation  Closely regulated  Hormones control blood glucose levels o Insulin o Glucagon o Epinephrine and Norepinephrine  Secreted by the adrenal glands and nerve endings when there is low blood glucose  Glycogenolysis  Responsible for “fight-or-flight” o Cortisol and Growth hormone  Secreted by adrenal glands to act on the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue  Cortisol increases gluconeogenesis and decreases muscle glucose use  Growth hormone decreases muscle glucose uptake, increases fatty acid mobilization and use, and increases liver glucose output Blood Glucose Regulation Terminology  Glycogenesis – formation of glycogen from glucose molecules  Lipogenesis – formation of triglyceride from excess glucose molecules (stored in liver and adipose tissue)  Glycogenolysis – breakdown of glycogen -> glucose  Gluconeogenesis – conversion of amino acids to glucose by the liver Glycemic Index 09/15/16  A rating of the potential of foods to raise blood glucose and insulin levels  High GI foods cause an increase in blood glucose which leads to a large increase in insulin followed by a big drop in sugar  Low GI cause low to moderate fluctuations in blood glucose  Not easy to predict Glycemic Load  Used to determine the effect of a food or meal on a person’s glucose response  Grams of carbs in a food are multiplied byu the glycemic index, then divided by 100  GI and glycemic load remain controversial  Evidence of health benefits is weak The Role of Carbohydrates  Provide energy = 4kcal/g o Primary fuel for brain, nerve cells  Only fuel source for red blood cells o Daily activity is fueled by both carbs and fats o Glucose is especially important for energy during exercise (esp. aerobic exercise)  If There Is
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