CRJ 106 Lecture 7: March 15 Lecture Parole and Offender Reentry (based on Chapter 10)

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University of Nevada - Reno
Criminal Justice
CRJ 106
Jennifer Lanterman

Criminal Justice 106 (Dr. Jennifer Lanterman) Yellow = Important Concepts Green = People Blue = Important Events/Works March 15 Lecture: Parole and Offender Reentry What is Parole?  Modern parole differs from probation in two ways o Administrative function that is a part of executive branch  Probation is considered a judicial function  Different types of organization o Separate agencies with distinct missions o Joint agencies and serve a “parole and probation officers” or “community supervision officers”  Varied methods of assigning caseloads o Parolees spent time in prison immediately prior to parole  Exceptions are shock probation and shock incarceration Brief History of Parole  Alexander Maconochie o Operated on three basic principles  Basic respect towards each other – be respectful or you will get disrespect back  Use punishment that will modify their behavior in desirable ways  People have to complete a series of tasks, rather than time  Use tasks to modify their behavior, not just on a time-basis o Required indefinite prison terms to implement his programs o Devised a mark system o Accused of coddling criminals and relieved of duties when he tried to institute his reforms after his return to England  Sir Walter Crofton o Devised Irish system  Stage 1: solitary confinement for first nine months  First three months: reduced rations and no work  Stage 2: Could earn marks through labor and good time  Stage 3: Enough good marks enabled transfer to an open pre-release prison (specifically for men)  Women were moved to houses of refuge  Segregated by religion  Stage 4: Ticket of leave could be obtained by convict  Supervised in community by either police officers or civilian volunteers Brief History of Parole II  Elements of the Maconochie and Crofton systems implemented in U.S. in 1870s o Zebulon Brockway  Elmira Reformatory (NY)  System required indeterminate sentencing Criminal Justice 106 (Dr. Jennifer Lanterman) Yellow = Important Concepts Green = People Blue = Important Events/Works  “Good time” earned through good conduct could
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