CRJ 106 Lecture 8: Lecture March 29 Alternatives to Incarceration (based on Chapter 7)

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University of Nevada - Reno
Criminal Justice
CRJ 106
Jennifer Lanterman

Criminal Justice 106 (Dr. Jennifer Lanterman) Yellow = Important Concepts Green = People Blue = Important Events/Works Lecture 3/29/17 - Chapter 7: Alternatives to Incarceration Introduction: The Origins of Probation  Probation o Conditional release into community  Testing of person’s character and ability to meet certain requirements under supervision o About 90% of sentences handed down are probation o 3,942,776 adults on probation in 2012 (1 in 61 adults)  Imprisonment is relatively modern and expensive o Historically, punishment was a community spectacle that did not include confinement  Execution, disfigurement, branding, stocks, etc. Evolution of Reprieve  Judicial reprieve o Sometimes practiced in English courts in 19 century  No probation officers to supervise  Communities supervised  Informal social control  impacting other’s behavior  Known consequence when others are observing your behavior  Early American courts used judicial reprieve o Suspended sentence and release on recognizance  Release on recognizance then and now  Then: Granted to those already convicted  Now: Granted to those arrested and awaiting trial o Release without paying bail or bond Reprieve in the United States  John Augustus o Developed the first real probation system in 1840s (America)  Appeared in court  Offered to take carefully selected offenders into his home, supervise them, and do what he could to help them reform  Risk principle – prioritize high-risk offenders  Reprieved person was supervised and helped  1878 Massachusetts legislature authorized hiring of salaried officers in Boston o Ex Parte United States [Killits] (1916)  Court ruled that judge erred in placing offender on probation without there being such a system established by law  Led to National Probation Act of 1925  Allowed federal judges to suspend sentences and place convicted offenders on probation Criminal Justice 106 (Dr. Jennifer Lanterman) Yellow = Important Concepts Green = People Blue = Important Even
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