BIOL 4220 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Medial Forebrain Bundle, Tricyclic Antidepressant, Biogenic Amine

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10 Dec 2017
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Cell$origin$=>$Rape$nucleus$
MFG$=>$medial$forebrain$bundle$
PAG$=>$periaquaductal$gray$($in$brainstem)$
Gating$pain$
$$
Projection$$
Parallel$w/$NE$system$
But$not$as$widespread$or$diffused$
Action$is$“opposite”$of$NE$
Calming$effect$vs.$stimulant$effect$
Sense$of$security$and$safety$
$$
Sexual$behavior$regulation$in$the$Raphe$Nuc$in$male$
Sexual$behavior$regulation$more$in$hypothalamus$$
$$
Depression$
Biogenic$amine$hypothesis$
Hypofunction$of$5-HT$
Anti-depressant$targeting$5-HT$system$
SSRI$=>$selective$serotonin$reuptake$inhibitory$
MAOI$=>$momoamine$oxidase$inhibitor$
TCA$=>$tricyclic$antidepressant$
Dual-action$antidepressant$
Action$on$5-HT$but$also$NE$or$DA$
Requires$4-6$week$for$therapeutic$effects$to$kick$in$
DNA$expression$
Newer$antidepresant$
Fast$acting$antidepressant$
PCP,$ketamine$(sub-anesthetic$dose)$
Lift$depressant$instant$within$4$hr$of$injection$
Last$for$1$month$
Instantly$increase$dendrite$spines$density$
Strengthen$synaptic$connection$instantly$
Byproduct$of$breaking$down$PCP,$Ketamine$=>$active$ingredient$=>$
Lift$depression$
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Prodrug$=>$no$action$by$itself$=>$but$once$inside$the$system$=>$
metabolize$it$=>$endproduct$is$the$active$ingredient$
5-HT$system$
Promote$well$being$of$animals$
Promote$mood$state$that$is$calming$and$safe$
Infants$dependent$on$maternal$care$
Releasing$5-HT$in$both$mother$and$infant$=>$bond$=>$sense$of$secure$and$
safety$
Separation$anxiety$if$mother$is$not$around$to$comfort$you$
Lose$the$sense$of$security$and$safety$
Lead$to$anxiety$(GAD)$generalized$anxiety$disorder$
Treat$cause$of$anxiety$
Target$5-HT$system$
Buspar$
Sense$of$safety$and$security$
Anxiety$becomes$non-issue$
Treatment$for$anxiety$
Treat$symptom$
Valium,$Xanax$
Inhibit$amygdala$
Suppress$fear$
MDMA$(methylenedixoxymethamphetamine)$
Ecstasy,$molly,$x,$rolling$
Induced$Cytoplasmic$release$of$5-HT$
Flush$out$vesicular$content$of$5-HT$into$cyto$then$into$synapse$
Activate$post-synaptic$
Initially$patented$by$Merck$(1900)$
Diet$pill$
Appetite$suppressor$
Military$test$for$drug$for$interrogation$
Truth$serum$
Honest$
Cannot$lie$
Tell$truth$
But$military$missed$the$effects$
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