EES 1030 Lecture 12: 12

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Earth & Environmental Sciences
EES 1030
John Adrain

EES:1030 Geolthic Structures February 28 , 2017 Study Guide Questions 1. What is deformation, and what kinds of deformation do we commonly see? Be able to define stress and strain, and also be able to sketch blocks that are experiencing compressive forces, tensionalextensional forces, and shear forces. 2. How does ductile deformation differ from brittle formation, and how does this relate to whether we see faults or folds? Kno w how temperatureconfining pressurerock mineralstime (fast or slow?) wi ll change the deformation style (brittle or ductile). 3. What is the difference between a joint and a fault? 4. Be able to identify the hanging wall and footwall in dip slip faults, and also be able to identify images of reverse vs. normal faults. For strikeslip faults, you should be able to identify from an image whether they are left lateral or rightlateral. Know the plate boundary settings that would produce each kind of fault. 5. Be able to recognize images of anticlines and synclines and know the plate boundary settings that produce these features. is the general term for all changes in the original form or size of a rock unit. Commonly, we see folds and faults: 1. ; 2. 3. . Deformation is the result of _______________ (force applied to a given area), which generates ___________ ( the resultant deformation, which manifests as changes in shape or size). In compression, we squeeze rocks together. In tension , rocks are pulled apart. In shear, two sides of rocks are pushed past each other. Types of stress: Compression: . Tension: . Shear: . Types of strain: Contraction: . Elongation: . Shear: . Initially, most rocks will deform _______________ (when the stress stops, they will return to their original shape). Once the elastic limit of the rock is reached, however, they will deform in two ways: ____________________________________: rocks break suddenly and we may see movement along faults (we produce fractures this way). ____________________________________: rocks flow, often generating folds What determines if we get brittle or ductile deformation? Increasing temperature will make rocks deform more _______________________, increasing confining pressure will make rocks deform more _________________________, certain minerals deform more ductilely, and slower deformation tends to be more _____________________________. Measuring orientation of geologic structures: : azimuth or bearing of the horizontal line that lies in an inclined plane . 1
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