EES 1030 Lecture 18: 18

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Earth & Environmental Sciences
EES 1030
John Adrain

th EES:1030 October 25 , 2016 Lecture 18: Running Water Study Guide Questions 1. How much water is in Earths hydrosphere, and where is it primarily stored? How much is freshwater, and where is this stored? 2. Be able to sketch and define the hydrologic cycle and its five associated processes. 3. What different factors impact infiltration capacity, and what is infiltration capacity? What factors will increase runoff? 4. How does laminar flow differ from turbulent flow? 5. What factors control stream velocity? Relatedly, how do we calculate stream discharge (what goes into this equation)? 6. What is a drainage basin, and how is it defined? How big is the Mississippi drainage basin? How is the Continental Divide related to general drainage patterns in the United States? 7. How do streams change as we move from their heads to their mouths? You should be familiar with channel characteristics as well as with what the stream is doing (eroding vs. transporting vs. depositing). Where would we find a vshaped valley? A wide valley with meanders? 8. What is base level? Be able to give examples of ultimate and local base levels. How will changes in base level impact stream erosion? 9. How do streams erode and transport particles (what physical processes do we observe)? Relatedly, what is stream capacity and stream competence, and what determines how competent a stream is and what its capacity is? 10. Know the *starred bolded italicized terms throughout lecture. 11. What features do we observe on floodplains? You should be familiar with levees, backswamps , yazoo tributaries, meanders, cutbanks, point bars, cutoffs, and oxbow lakes. Given a diagram, you should be able to identify these features. 12. What are different kinds of floods, why do they occur, and how can we enginnerotherwise prevent or minimize thei r damage? Lecture Notes EXAM ON TUESDAY, APRIL 11! Running water: one of the most famous examples Niagara Falls: American and Bridal Veil Falls: 1,060 feet of waterfall across, 176 feet of waterfall down (this is why this p lace is such an attraction). Volume: 150,000 US gallonssecond. Canadian Horseshoe Falls: 2,000 feet of water fall across, 167 feet of waterfall down (vertical drop), volume = 160,000 US gallonssecond. So Canada wins, but we can see their waterfall really well from our side so theres that. Distribution of Earths water: Earths hydrosphere contains 3.26 million cubic miles of water! Most of this is stored in the oceans. Recall from last lecture that there is very little freshwater (~2.8) and that it is stored primarily as groundwater (0.62) and glaciers (2.15). Other nonocean components of the hydrosphere : Freshwater lakes (0.009), Saline lakes (0.008), Soil moisture (0.005), Stream channels (0.0001), Atmosphere (0.001). Despite its small volume, the freshwater portion of the hydrosphere that we interact with dramatically impacts the characteristics of the land that we inhabit. Hydrologic cycle: continuous circulation of Earths water among the oceans, atmosphere and continents. Five associated hydrologic processes: evaporation, transpiration, precipitation, infiltration, runoff 1. ____________________________ : water turns from liquid into a vapor and moves into the atmosphere 2. Transpiration: release of water vapor to the atmosphere by plants through pores in their leaves (water goes directly from plants into atmosphere, after being absorbed from ground through plant roots) 3. _____________________________ : water, such as rain (100 chance of, today L ), snow, sleet, hail and unappealing combinations of the above that falls to the g round, from the atmosphere to the hydrosphere. 4. Infiltration: surface water drains into ground through cracks and pore spaces in regolith. 5. Runoff: water flows over land, rather than infiltrating into the ground. Running water is the MOST important erosional agent affecting Earths surface! This produces our dramatic landscapes, and can be quite a hazard. 1
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