EES 1030 Lecture 11: 11

3 Pages
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Department
Earth & Environmental Sciences
Course Code
EES 1030
Professor
John Adrain

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EES:1030 Mountain Belts February 23, 2017 Study Guide Questions 1. What are the two different ways that we classify the outer layers in the Earth (crustmantle versus lithosphereasthenosphere)? 2. What layers of the Earth can we easily sample? 3. How much of the Earth, approximately, is made up of the crust by volume? What are our two types of crust? 4. What types of plate boundary do most mountain belts form at? 5. How do continents grow, and what is a terrane? 6. What is an orogenic process, and where do these occur? 7. Know the chart from today! 8. Are older or younger mountains likely to be taller, and why? 9. Know the different parts of continents (shields, cratons, stable platforms). 10. Do mountains form in extensional settings? 11. What controls how tall can mountains get? 12. What happens to mountain belts? Lecture Notes Making mountains Continents show a marked range of different topographies: there are flat shields and flat platforms, but also mountains, which can be young or old. Oceanic crust is ___________________ dense that continental crust Mountains form where crust is ___________________________ and they are higher than surrounding crust due to ___________________________. How continents work: we have remnants of crust that are ____________________ of years old preserved at a few locations on Earth. These silicarich rocks are too buoyant to subduct into the denser mantle, and have been cruising around as a result of plate tectonics since their formation. The east coast of the United States is an example of a ____________________ continental margin: over the past 250 million years, it has not accreted anything. Continental crust grades into oceanic crust, which extends out to the mid ocean ridge. These boundaries have no volcanoes and rare earthquakes. In contrast, we make mountains through orogenic processes at ______________________ continental margins. The Himalayas formed as the result of a ___________________________________________ collision. Continents grow through time as the result of ________________________ (small fragments of material collide and merge with continental margins), which occurs due to plate tectonic processes. _________________________ are crustal fragments with geologic histories distinctive from that of adjoining terranes. We can accrete island arcs, microcontinents, and oceanic plateaus (we literally just crash these into the sides of continents and suture them on, which results in highly metamorphosed and structurally deformed rocks). Continents are very interesting combinations of accreted terranes. 1
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