EES 1030 Lecture 20: 20

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University of Iowa
Earth & Environmental Sciences
EES 1030
John Adrain

EES:1030 Introduction to Earth Science November 01, 2016: Shorelines Study Guide Questions 1. How does the coastline differ from the shoreline? 2. What do tides result from (what two bodies exert gravitational pulls on the Earth and its water)? How do spring tides form, and how do neap tides form? You should know where the sun and moon are relative to each other during these events. 3. Be able to recognize diagrams of diurnal, semidiurnal, and mixed tides. 4. Be able to correctly label a diagram of wave anatomy. 5. What four factors interact to determine the size of our waves? 6. Oscillatory waves in the ocean are most similar to what kind of earthquake wave? 7. How do deep water waves move water (what is the shape of water orbits, and how deep, relative to wavelength, are water particles moved)? 8. How do waves change as they move into shallow water (what happens to their orbits)? 9. How do waves erode coastlines, and wh at do shoreline features depend on? 10. Know the various shoreline features discussed in class today (LTT, beaches, the names for the different zones on the shore and coast, berms, dunes, etc.) 11. Know the difference between an emergent and submergent coast. What sorts of features do we find in each environment? You should be able to label diagrams for both of these (so sea stacks, sea arches, estuaries, etc.). 12. How much has sea level risen annually, on average, over the past 100 years? 13. What is a longshore current? Know associated features (barrier islands, spits, tombolos, etc.). 14. How do we attempt to control the coastline? Be able to identify jetties, groins, seawalls, and breakwalls on a diagram. 15. What are facies? Lecture Notes The landsea boundary is the common boundary between air, land, and the ocean. This boundary is constantly changing as a result of wave action, and is also the site of intense human activity (construction, living, vacationing). We like to spend t ime at the beach! ___________________________ ___: line that marks the contact between land and sea (constantly moving!) ______________________________: the coasts seaward edge (landward limit of the effect of the highest storm wave son the shore). So in storm events, this gets wet. Note that this i s a lot farther back than the shoreline. Tides and shoreline migration: the shoreline moves up and down each day as tides rise and fall. Tides result from the interaction of the moon and the sun, which exert gravitational pulls on the Earth and its water (the moon exerts about twice the pull the sun does, so we think of this as our main tidal driver). Because of the ____________________ force of the moon, both the Earth and the oceans are pulled to wards the moon, creating a bulge of water and earth on the side of the Earth facing the moon. On the side of the Earth directly opposite from the moon, the movement of the Earth towards the moon and also reduced gravitational attraction creates another bul ge. The sun has a similar but smaller effect. As the Earth rotates, it moves underneath these bulges this is what gives us our tides! _______________________________ are exceptionally high tides that occur when the moon and sun are operating in a line (gravitational forces added). _______________________________are exceptionally low tides that occur when the moon and sun form a right angle with the Earth at the bend. In this situation, their pulls dampen each others gravitational effects. Tides globally are highly variablethey are the result of waves interacting with very specific seafloor topographies, coastline shapes, and currents. Kinds of tides: ________________ tidal pattern: one high tide and one low tide each day Semidiurnal tidal pattern: two high tides and two low tides each day 1
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