GEOG 1070 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Subsistence Agriculture, Sub-Saharan Africa, Malnutrition

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GEOG 1070: Contemporary Environment Issues – Lecture 8
Annual grain production has increased
Amount of grain per person remained stable
Food security built on availability, access, and use
Debates are between quantity and distribution, population growth or levels of
production, national security or global trade
World Grain stocks: measures availability
Rising temperatures, falling water drought, ethanol production, livestock feeds,
and increased meat production leads to WGS decrease
Malnutrition leads to stunting and physical disabilities, cognitive impairments,
anemia, and mortality
~800 million people suffer from persistent hunger and malnutrition
Sub-saharan Africa `1/3 of residents affected by hunger
Famine: severe temporary food shortage
More people die from starvation than famine
Famine causation: political issue
Food deserts are areas that lack access to affordable fruits, vegetables, whole
grains, etc
Subsistence agriculture is raising crops and livestock to meet own needs
oNo profit
oPrimarily rain fed
oTraditional system in LDCs
oSustainability of this sort only succeeds with low populations and
sufficient resources to produce crops
oFails when populations are high and growth is fast
oTypically use slash and burn agriculture, and nomadic herding
Industrialized agriculture:
oModern agriculture methods that require large capital input, and less land
and labor
oNew, maturing, larger farms
oUses chemical pesticides
oGenetically modified crops
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