HHP 2200 Lecture 8: HHP Exam 2 Study guide

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Health & Human Physiology
HHP 2200
Alison Phillips

Dose Response- Refers to amount of physical activity or exercise necessary to achieve a SPECIFIC OUTCOME [3 Dose Curve:] 1. Curve A-disease risk is reduced from high levels of physical activity 2. Curve B-disease risk is reduced a bit by each incremental increase in physical activity 3.Curve C-disease risk is reduced from low to moderate levels of physical activity Surgeon's general report on Physical Activity and Health- -Focus on moderate PA, (make enjoyable-people will do it) = lifestyle activities may be easier to incorporate in one’s life -recommendations: Moderate PA most (if not all) days [30min- >5x per week] -equivalent activities with energy expenditure (150 Kcal per session) -less vigorous=more time/ more vigorous=less time PA depends on: 1.age 2.risk factors (family history) 3. health status 4. fitness goals ➢ PA Guidelines for Adults – two components • Aerobic: 150 minutes of moderate or 75 minutes of vigorous or an equivalent combination per week o Vigorous PA x2 = moderate minutes o Minimum: 10 minute bouts o Additional benefits up to 300 minutes per week o Avoid inactivity • Muscle Strengthening: 2 days per week o Involve all major muscle groups o Minimum: 1-set, 8-12 reps Our exercise needs to be in 10 minute bouts and CAN’T be five minutes ➢ Children and Adolescents (<18 years) • 60 minutes of PA daily • Aerobic: most of the 60+ min/day moderate or vigorous intensity o Vigorous intensity activity – at least 3 days per week o Any amount of PA “counts” • Muscle strengthening: as part of their 60+ minutes o At least 3 days of the week o Children – lifting or moving, things, climbing, working against resistance o Adolescents- lifting weights, body weight, major muscles • Bone-strengthening: as part of their 60+ minutes o At least 3 days of the week o Running, hopping, skipping, jumping • Age appropriate, enjoyable, offer variety ➢ Older Adults • Same Guidelines as for Adults • Guidelines just for Older Adults o Be as active as abilities and conditions allow o Focus on exercise to maintain or improve balance o Intensity – based on relative intensity measured o Physician, not necessary unless chronic condition exists o Inactive – progress slowly ➢ Pregnancy • Should be under the care of a health care provider • Healthy women, inactive or < 150 minutes o Achieve 150 minutes of moderate PA during pregnancy and postpartum • Healthy vigorously active women (>150 minutes) o Continue regular activity during pregnancy and postpartum o Discuss with healthcare provider about how and when activity should be adjusted • After the first trimester, avoid exercise while lying on the back • Avoid exercise that could increase risk of falling or causing abdominal trauma ➢ People with disabilities • Same aerobic and muscle strengthening guidelines • If not able to meet guidelines above, o Engage in activity according to abilities o Avoid inactivity • Seek advice from a healthcare provider • Discuss exercise with healthcare provider or exercise specialist • Be as active as condition allows ➢ People with Chronic Medical Conditions (diabetes, arthritis..) • Obtain important health benefits from PA • Physical activity has risks o When precaution met, PA is safe, and necessary for health o Need healthcare provider -> types and amounts of appropriate PA PA Guidelines and Body Weight • Benefits – independent of body weight and occur no matter whether body weight changes or stays the same • Weight loss – PA is essential o (Dietary intervention also necessary) • Overweight or obsess people: o If inactive – aim to achieve 150 minutes moderate PA o If active – 300+ minutes per week Hypokinetic Disease: Low levels of movement(lack of PA) = abnormal function and deterioration (of structure parts or symptoms) -Cardiovascular diseases, Cancer, Type II Diabetes (low-exercise) Sedentary Death Syndrome: a group of signs/symptoms associated a particular disease (bc of sedentary living) 1-low fitness 2-low bone density 3-high blood sugar 4-low HDL cholesterol 5-high resting HR 6-overweight and obese Sedentary, Inactive, Or Unfit ▪ Sedentary – waking behavior, <1.5 in seated or reclined posture. o > 2 hours of sitting, watching TV, other “screen time” ▪ Inactive – insufficient amounts of moderate to vigorous PA ▪ Unfit – lower 25%, age dependent o 20-29 years o Men < 37 ml/kg/min o women <30 ml/kg/min ▪ Being sedentary is a risk factor and not meeting the PA Guidelines Goal: increase movement, increase moderate-vigorous PA, increase Fitness Risk Factors: Factors that cause a person or group of people to be at risk of an unwanted or unhealthful event Relative Risk: chance that a disease or side effect will occur given certain conditions or factors Risk Premature: prevention of risk factors that maintains health -research clearly demonstrates the importance of avoiding inactivity -some physical activity is better than none -dose response(bigger dose, bigger response -applies equally to all Risk of Premature mortality starts to level out at around 300 minutes per week Prevention: (Levels of Prevention) 1.Primary- prevent disease well before it develops, reduce in risk factors 2.Secondary-early detection of disease 3.Tertiary-treat established disease to prevent deterioration Health Benefits in Association to Regular PA- Lower risk of early death, coronary heart disease, colon/ breast cancer, prevent weight gain, falls, reduces depression Benefits-Children and adolescents Benefits- adults strong evidence -lower risk -improved cardiorespiratory and muscular -early death fitness -heart disease -improved bone health -colon cancer -improved cardiovascular and metabolic -breast cancer health biomarkers -favorable body composition moderate -reduced symptoms of depression Health Risks of Prolonged sitting: -sedentary is associated with risk factors for chronic diseases such as 1. large waist circumference, 2. unhealthy levels of blood glucose, insulin, and blood fat. 3. 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