PSY 1001 Lecture 1: Review for exam 2

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20 Jun 2016
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Elementary Psych Review Session – Exam #2
Sensation vs. Perception
Sensation
oThe physical thing in the environment
Perception
oUnderstanding/ brain process of the sensation
Examples:
oVision
Sensation – light waves (Color, shape, etc.)
Perception – Object we see
oHearing
Sensation – Sound waves
Perception – Sound (Bird tweeting)
oTouch
Sensation – Pressure
Perception – Poke, touch, etc.
oSmell
Sensation – Chemicals in the air
Perception – Smell (Cinnamon rolls)
oTaste
Sensation – Chemicals dissolved in saliva
Perception – Sweet, salty, bitter, etc.
Transduction
oTransfer of info to brain through neurons
Psychophysics
Absolute Threshold
oMinimum stimulus needed for perception 50% of time
Just Noticeable Difference
oSmallest Amount of stimulus needed to detect change in stimulus
Weber’s Law
oRelated to Just Noticeable Difference
oThe more intense the stimulus, the bigger the change needs to be for
detection
oEx: If you have a 1-ounce weight and a 2-ounce weight, you could tell
the difference. If you have a 10-ounce weight and a 12-ounce weight
you couldn’t tell the difference
Vision
Rods
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oBrightness/light
Cones
oColor
Gnostic Cells
oTake shape, coloring, location and tell you what something is
Simple Cells
oDetect orientation and specific location
Complex Cells
oDetect orientation, less location dependent
Anatomy of Eye and Functions
**Missing
Blind Spot and
Fovea^^
Pupil
o
Allows light in, can adjust to different amounts of light
Iris
oRing of muscle, color part of eye
Lens
oBends light, focuses light
Cornea
oProtects eye, focuses light
Fovea
oAll cones, where vision is at it’s best
Retina
oLocation of rods and cones
Optic Nerve
oCarries info from eye to brain
Blind Spot
oWhere the optic nerve exits eye
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Perceptions of Color
Trichromatic Theory
oThere are 3 types of cones and each detects a different color
Red, Blue, Green
oMay explain color blindness
Opponent Process Theory
oOpposing colors detected by one cone
Problems with Vision
Blindness
oThe eye and the brain aren’t communicating therefore you can’t see
anything
Blind sight
oNo perception of sight, don’t even know they are seeing something
Visual Agnosia
oThey can see/describe the object but they can’t identify it
Gestalt Principles
Describes how we see objects as a whole
Hearing (Audition)
Pitch
oFrequency
Loudness
oAmplitude
Timbre
oComplexity of a sound
oEx: Each instrument sounds different
Parts of Ear
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