HSS 388 Lecture 3: Review Chapters 5 and 6

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Health and Sport Sciences
HSS 388
Elizabeth Ledford

Chapter 5&6 Review • Anaerobic Training o High intensity, intermittent bouts of exercise such as weight training, plyometric drills, HIIT, start/stop, speed, agility, interval training (short 30 secs – 1 min). • Neural Adaptations o Central adaptations – more force yields more motor cortex o Adaptations of motor units – maximal strength resulting in recruiting more often o Neuromuscular reflex potentiation – anaerobic training causes positive changes in stretch-reflex • Recruitment During Resistance Training o Advanced weight lifters, Olympic level, CNS may adapt by allowing recruitment in non-consecutive order, largest first • Size principle o Low threshold motor units are recruited first and have lower force capabilities than high threshold o All units recruited are used o To get high threshold body must first recruit small threshold • Muscular Adaptations o Skeletal muscle adapts to anaerobic training primarily by increasing in size o What you are born with is all you have when they die they are gone o Each individual fiber grows • Muscular Adaptations o Type is established at motor neuron o Sprint training enhances calcium release  yields muscle contractions o Resistance training increases angle of pennation  muscles can shorten quicker o Increased buffering capacity, pH changes • Connective Tissue Adaptations o Minimal essential strain – the threshold that initiated new bone formation, needed to form bones o Insult – threat to homeostasis o The degree of tissue adaptation is proportional to the intensity of exercise, the faster we sprint the more force o How can athletes stimulate connective tissue adaptations? ▪ Tendons, ligaments, fascia ▪ Only receptors being used • Compatibility of Aerobic and Anaerobic Modes of Training o Combining resistance and aerobic endurance (3 min or longer) training may interfere with strength and power gains primarily if high intensity, volume, and frequency o Aerobic pathways will interfere with anaerobic o Certain training must come before other training o Lay aerobic before anaerobic o Endurance athlete working on power will be okay • What are the Performance Improvements from Anaerobic Exercise? o Closer we are to out limit the longer it takes for us to see results o Any program will yield for beginners 2 o Low threshold/tolerance will see result o Resistance training will not change VO2 unless the person is extremely unhealthy or very far from genetic ceiling o Power is work done over time o Muscular strength – heavier loads are more effective for recruitment • Overtraining and Detraining o OT – no rest or not
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