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Lecture 5

PSYC 201 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Lev Vygotsky, Primitive Reflexes, Cell Growth


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 201
Professor
Dr.Melinda Leonard
Lecture
5

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Developing Through the Life Span
Chapter 4
Developmental psychology – Branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social
change throughout the lifespan.
Issue Details
Nature/Nurture how do genetic inheritance and experience
influence behavior
Continuity/Stages is development gradual, continuous process or
a sequence of separate stages
Stability change do out early personalities traits persist through
life of do we become different persons as we
age
Conception
A single sperm cell penetrates the outer coating of the egg and fuses to form one fertilized cell.
Prenatal development
A zygote is a fertilized egg
Within the first week cell division has increased to 100 cells
Conception to 2 weeks
Zygote develops into an embryo
o10 days – 9 weeks
9 weeks, an embryo turns into a fetus
ofetus until birth
Teratogens are chemicals or viruses that can enter the placenta and harm the developing
fetus.
oAlcohol
oNicotine
oExcess mercury
oFlu
oZica virus
oElicit or prescribed drugs
The Competent Newborn
Infants are born with reflexes that aid in survival, including rooting reflex which helps
them locate food.
Stage Span
Infancy newborn to toddler
Childhood toddler to teenager
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Physical development
To understand the emergence of motor skills and memory, we must understand brain
development.
owithout stimulation, neural connections do not form.
oNeglected babies
Maturation
Biological growth process that enable orderly changes in behavior.
Relatively uninfluenced by experience
Maturation sets the basic course of development, while experience adjusts it.
Motor development
Sitting unsupported – 6 months
Crawling – 8-9 months
Beginning to walk – 10 months
Walking Independently – 11 months
Brain maturation and Infant memory
Organization of memory is different from 3-4 years
Developing “sense of self”
Cognitive Development
Shaped by the errors we make
oExamples - sliding on a miniature slide, talking on fake telephone
Schemas
Mental molds into which we pour our experiences
Assimilation and accommodation
The process of assimilation involves incorporating new experiences into our current
understandings (schema)
The process of adjusting a schema and modifying it is called accommodation. (new
experience not fitting with already existing experiences)
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor Stage – (6months – 2)
Experiencing the world through senses and actions –
Children younger than 6 months of age do not grasp object permanence; i.e., objects that
are out of sight are also out of mind.
Criticisms
oPiaget believed children in the sensorimotor stage could not think – they do not
have any abstract concepts or ideas.
oHowever, recent research shows that children in the sensorimotor stage can think
and count
Children can count – Wynn (1992, 2000)
Preoperational Stage (2-6/7)
Representing things with words and images
Piaget suggested that 2 years old to about 6-7
oEngages in symbolic play, and learn to manipulate symbols
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