AVS 324_ Poultry.docx

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Animal and Veterinary Science
AVS 324
Fred Launer

Poultry  Terminology: -adema: swelling -capon: castrated male poultry, grow faster and juicier -pullet: immature female poultry -cockerel: immature male poultry -hen: mature female poultry (has laid eggs) -rooster: mature male poultry, sexually viable (not castrated)  Feeding/Nutrition: -omnivores -feed conversions: -broiler chicken: 1.9 lbs: 1 lbs (eat 1.9 lbs food, gain 1 lb weight) -layer chicken: 4.3 lbs: 12 eggs (eat 4.3 lbs feed per 12 eggs laid) -turkey: 1.7 lbs: 1 lb (at 1.7 lbs feed, gain 1 lb weight) -corn and soy bean are main foods for broilers  Digestion: -monogastric (but with crop which holds food before stomach) -esophagus  crop (food storage)  proventriculus (“true stomach”)  gizzard (has rocks, adds buffer)  duodemal loop (most absorption of nutrients happens)  small intestine  ceca/cecum (blind storage, can cause problems)  large intestine (absorb water)  cloaca  Medical: -appropriate vaccination: lenthogenic and mesogenic New Castle Disease (could include Coccidiosis but vaccine is not very successful) -VVND (Valogenic Visotropic New Castle Disease): not zoonotic, virus, foreign animal disease -Carriers: fighting hawks, Amazon Parrot, small rodents and birds, people -Symptoms: diarrhea (severe with valogenic form), look unhappy, neurological behavior, deformed eggs, „snick‟ noises -Three Types of VVND: 1. Lentogenic: mild, vaccinate for it, low death toll in USA, potential for neurological damage 2. Mesogenic: low death, potential for neurological damage, exists in the USA, vaccinate for it 3. Valogenic: looks like AI (Avian Influenza) except can have neurological damage, no cure, 97-99% death toll, takes 72-92 hours after symptoms for bird to die -HPAI (High Pathogenic Avian Influenza): zoonotic, virus, type A influenza, 100% death toll, can mutate, no cure -high pathogenic if 6/8 or more die when injected with virus (true HPAI) -low pathogenic if 6/8 or less die when injected with virus (not really HPAI) -carriers: water fowl (don‟t as sick as chickens) -Psittacosis (Parrot Fever): zoonotic, virus, flu-like symptoms in birds and humans, not often found in poultry -Coccidiosis: protozoa (single cell parasite), there is a vaccine but not very successful, can feed coccidiostats in feed (keeps coccidian eggs from hatching in the chicken), very hard to get rid of coccidiosis once infected -Strains: (4 types) 1. affects duodemal loop 2. affects small intestine 3. affects ceca 4. affects turkeys (no chickens) -Symptoms: green diarrhea, kills quickly (dehydration/ starvation) -Salmonella Pullorum: not zoonotic, can test for it (NPIP does the test and the state will do it for you for free), death losses in mature egg embryos (not infertility), chicks that are effected but live are weak -laying hens have better immune system than broilers  Breeding: -seasonally polyestrus (10 hrs of light will keep
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