AVS 324_Equine.docx

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Animal and Veterinary Science
AVS 324
Fred Launer

Equines (Horses, Donkeys, Mules)  Terminology: -stallion: male adult horse -gelding: castrated male adult horse -mare: female adult horse -colt: young male horse -filly: young female horse -foal: young horse -jenny: female adult donkey -jack: male adult donkey -hinny: cross between a stallion and a jenny -mule: cross between a jack and a mare  Feeding: -should eat high quality hay (1 cutting, not Spring hay because it has too much protein) -want hay to be green and have long fibers (12-14 inches long) -grain is a feed that can be used if the horse lives a strenuous life -ideally feed 6 times per day small meals to mimic grazing all day -important to feed consistently (same food, same amount, same time) -if need to change foods must change them in a slow transition (should take 7-14 days to transition) -horses need feed with 8.5% protein -gradually transition horse to lush pasture so they don’t colic  Digestion: -monogastric -steps of digestion: 1. Esophagus 2. Cardiac Sphincter Valve: reason why horses can’t vomit, makes food come up when put head head down to graze 3. Stomach: secretes hydrochloric acid 4. Small Intestine: breaks protein into amino acids that absorb carbohydrates (50% of energy needed from here) 5. Cecum: blind storage, doesn’t do anything, pH 6.7 6. Large Colon: absorbs 50% of energy 7. Small Colans 8. rectum 10. anus  Medical: -Rabies (aka “hydrophobia”): virus, zoonotic, spreads through saliva for the most part (how fast it affects the victim depends on location and severity of the bite), horse produce 10 gallons of saliva per day so they are very good at spreading rabies), appropriate vaccination -two types of rabies: -ferocious -sympathetic -West Nile Virus: virus, zoonotic, spreads from bird to mosquito to humans, usually affects horses 6-7 years old, 50% fatal, foreign animal disease (from Egypt), encephalitic disease (causes brain swelling), mosquito born, some horses get sick, some die and some aren’t even affected, appropriate vaccination -EEE/WEE (Eastern/Western Equine Encephalitis): virus, mosquito born, 100% fatal, Florida is a place that needs to vaccinate 3x per year due to mild winters, carried by birds, zoonotic (humans can only catch it from birds, not horses), kills horses and humans, causes brain swelling and neurological damage,
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