All about macromolecules and polarity of water

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University of Rhode Island
Biological Sciences
BIO 105
Bradley Wetherbee

Carbon- biologically important molecules • Cells are composed of complex molecules • Most important cell molecules are based on carbon • Molecules that contain carbon are called organic molecules • Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds with other molecules • 4 bonds means that carbon compounds have a huge variety of structures: ◦ Carbon tends to bond with other carbons and a few other atoms ▪ Hydrogen ▪ Oxygen ▪ Nitrogen • 4 broad groups of bio macromolecules ◦ Carbs ◦ Lipids ◦ Proteins ◦ Nucleic acids • All 4 are present in all organisms • All are made the same way in organisms • All 4 are built of smaller organic building blocks ◦ Carbs= simple sugars ◦ Lipids= fatty acids ◦ Proteins= amino acids ◦ Nucleic acids= nucleotides Carbohydrates • Contains C,H,O • Sugars for energy and structural material • 3 main types ◦ Monosaccharides (glucose, fructose) ◦ Disaccharides (sucrose → table sugar, lactose) ◦ Polysaccharides • Other important modified carbs ◦ Many bond glucose together ◦ Starch=plants ◦ Glycogen= animals ◦ Cellulose ▪ Plants (wood, paper, cotton) ▪ Most abundant organic material on earth Lipids-fats • Diverse molecules • But share a single property ◦ Do not easily dissolve in water ◦ Lipids are non-polar substances (water is polar) • Many functions of lipids ◦ Cell membrane ◦ Energy ◦ Hormones ◦ Insulation ◦ Water repellant ◦ Vitamins • Major groups of lipids: ◦ Simple: triglycerides ◦ Complex: phospholipid ◦ Steroids: cholestero
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