Chapter 10- DNA structure and function

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University of Rhode Island
Biological Sciences
BIO 105
Bradley Wetherbee

Chapter 10 DNAstructure and function Importance of DNA • DNAcontains genetic information of organisms • Traits of an organism are dependent on what genes are in its DNA • Information to synthesize thousands of proteins is contained in DNA • Control of other cell processes contained in DNA- what a cell does and when it does it • DNAis the basis for inheritance and reproduction • Watson and Crick, double helix model- 50 years ago ◦ DNAcarries a number of functions ▪ Makes copies of itself • Duplication of chromosomes prior to mitosis and meiosis • Each cell must have template to copy ▪ Encodes information • Info used to make proteins • Proteins carry out many functions in organisms ▪ Controls cells and gives directions • Genetic information expressed by chemical processes ▪ Changes by mutation • Has to be some structural flexibility DNAstructure • Nucleic acids like DNAare made up of nucleotides ◦ Nucleotides have 3 components ▪ 5 carbon sugar ▪ Nitrogenous base ▪ Phosphate group • Sugar and phosphate are alike inALL DNA • Base can be one of four kinds: ◦ Guanine (G) ◦ Cytosine (C) ◦ Adenine (A) ◦ Thymine (T) • DNAis a double helix ◦
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