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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHM 103
Professor
Dombi
Semester
Fall

Description
Classification of Matter ● Matter ○ Pure Substance ■ Cannot be physically separated ■ Element ● only one type of atom in a sample ■ Compound ● elements are chemically combined in a fixed proportion (ch ● chemical reaction ● (sugar, carbon dioxide) ○ Mixture ■ Can physically be separated ■ elements and or compounds are physically mixed in variable proportions ● (sugar water) ● Homogeneous: a single phase, same throughout, a SOLUTION ● Heterogeneous: some substance will refuse to mix (there will ● be distinct phases) (oil and water) (hydrocarbons hate water) 9/5/2013 What is chemistry? ● study of the physical and compositional changes of matter ● called central science What is Matter? ● anything that has mass, occupies space and is made-up of atoms or parts of atoms What is Mass? ● The amount of matter in an object ● independent of the location of the object ● an object on earth is the same mass on the moon but not the same weight Weight ● weight is a measure of gravitational force acting on an object ● weight depends on the location of the object ● Force = Mass*Acceleration, F=ma Wt=m(gravity ● An object on earth (1lb) weighs .17 lb on the moon. moon has ⅙the gravity of earth Properties of Matter ● Physical Properties of matter ○ physical properties can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the matter being observed ○ Examples of physical properties are: color, shape and mass, and all changes in state ● Chemical Properties of matter ○ chemical prop. can be observed or measured only when the composition of matter is changed ○ examples of chemical properties are flammability and the ability to react ■ (changes in partners on the dance floor would be chem) ● Physical Changes ○ physical changes are reversible ○ take place without a change in composition. atoms are not changing partners ○ nothing new is created ○ examples of physical changes are freezing, (separation are physical changes, all phase changes are Physical changes), melting, or evaporation of a substance ○ separation of compounds is a physical change ● Chemical ○ not always reversible ○ always accompanied by a change in composition. atoms changing partners ○ new types of matter are being created, O2 + 2H2 → 2H2O ○ ex: burning of paper and fizzing of vinegar and baking soda Atoms are the basis of Matter ● Democritus (greek, 500-400 BC) ○ first person who suggested that atoms were the basis of matter ○ atoms comes from the word “atomos” means “no cut” ○ said there were different types of atoms ○ matter was made if atoms and spaces, call the void ○ aristotle, argued against the possibility of a void and the atomic theory was lost for nearly 1500 years ● John Dalton (English, 1766-1844) ○ Father of modern Atomic theory ○ Based on Experimental evidence with gases Dalton Atomic (Particulate) MODEL OF MATTER ● all matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms ● unique types of atoms are called elements ● molecules are collections of bonded atoms ● compound is general term that includes molecules, atoms, and ions (atoms not having normal number of electrons) ● compounds have fixed ratio of atoms ● chemical reactions do not create or destroy atoms ● chemical reactions can create or destroy compounds Chemical View of atom ● nucleus is the center containing protons (+), and neutrons (0) and electrons (-) are on the outside ● atomic number = # of protons, defines the element ● atomic mass = wt of protons and wt of neutrons ● number of electrons = # of protons in neutral atom ● neutron wt = proton + electron ● Protons + Neutrons = nucleon Elements ● elements are pure substances made up of homoatomic molecules or individual atoms of the same kind ● examples are oxygen gas made up of homoatomic mol
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