ses 5-1 and 5-2 women in modern science .docx

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University of Rhode Island
Gender and Women’s Studies
GWS 220
Elizabeth Herron

WOMEN IN MODERN SCIENCE o Student led discussion:  Connections o Women working in labs is in some sorts an alien thing, but in life things that are alien often become native and the “norm”, maybe that will happen with female scientists o Women in scientific field increasing more than males increasing annually o Sex vs gender  Sex-biological distinction  Gender- social and cultural differences o Science  A set of practices and a body of knowledge delineated by a community  Hallmarks include: objectivity, validity, consensus  Gender can impact perception  Understanding the language of science is critical o Basic scienticing terms  Data o Qualitative or quantitative variables o Data is the plural of datum o Any measurements or result is a datum o Raw data-unprocessed data o Field data- raw data collected in an uncontrolled in situ environments o Experimental data- generated within the context of a scientific investigation  Surveys o Sampling of a subset of individuals from a populations in order to make statistical inferences o Survey design and implementation can strongly affect outcomes o 9 out of 10  Experiments o Experiemental design-method/setup being used to gather info, usually some sort of control is used, and some sort of variation o Control-constants o Reference site/reference population/reference condition represents the highest biological condition found if nudist urged by anthropogenic stressors (standard group/ area) o Statistics  Tools used to compare and validate data  Study of the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data o Interpreting/analyzing results  scientists interpret data based on thier background knowledge and experience  Study design adefects results, and ultimately interpretation  Allows other researchers to access your interpretation o Laws vs hypotheses  Laws differ from hypotheses and postulates, which are proposed during the scientific process before and during validation by experiment and observation  With sufficient verification and genreal application, eventually leads to the formation of a law o Science: affected by percaptions  Frame the questions  State the assumptions  Develop the assessment methods  Interpret the observations  Suggest what the observations tell us about the system and possible implications  Identify what is considered “true”  All of these are affected by our own experiences, view points and feelings- whether we know it or noe o Metaphors  Work to focus our attention in particular ways  Conceptually magnify one set of similarities and differences  Dwarfing or blurring others possibly  Genderilzed metaphors o Conceptions-joining of egg and sperm:  Egg-large and passive  Sperm-active  Now discovering that eggs are equally active, but selective o Drosophila  Model organisms for research for almost a century  Particularly valuable in genetics and developmental biology  Important for human health modeling  Why use them? o Extensive history-well understood o Easy and cheap to work with o Short life cycle- allowed many generations to be studied o Entire genome has been sequenced o Mutant flies available for study  Studies: o Development biology-how complex organisms arise from simple, fertilized eggs o Metamorphosis-adult structures developing from pupa o Limited # of chromosomes o Visible under microscopes o Walking a tightrope readings  Challenges:  Hostile work environments  Sexual innuendo  Sexual harassment  Being snubbed, ignored, or patronized  Feeling marginalized  Male-centered research focus  Challenging the extrapolating of Drosophila genetic research to human behavior  Feminist views create distance from science colleagues  Bateman’s principles  Females are cog or choosy about mates  Eggs are larger and fewer  More resource
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