• Contours do not run through stairs.
• Contours stop at the edges of stairs and reemerge on other side of stairs
• Place spot elevations at the tops and bottoms of stairs
indicate with the symbol T.S. 236.9, B.S. 232.9
• Treads should pitch 1/8"/ft toward the nose (1/8” wash). That is not shown in plan;
however, when grading the TS and BS will reflect the tread slopes.
• Ramps are inclined sidewalks at a uniform slope.
typically ranging between 5 -8%
• Ramps can be graded perpendicular to the length or cross pitched
• Spot elevations are normally given at top and bottom.
• A directional arrow is usually drawn indicating the downhill slope.
Grading for walls
• Contours are not shown in walls.
• Contours run to the edge of a wall and emerge on the other side or at the end.
• Spot elevations are given at top of wall (T.W.) and
at bottom of wall (B.W.)
• Runoff and drainage are critical to a wall’s durability. Use contours and swales to intercept
and direct water away from walls. Do not drain over a wall as water can stain.
• Weepholes and longitudinal back drains are used to collect and direct runoff Biotechnical Erosio