Psy 113 Notes: Quiz #1 – Research Methods
TA: Dorothy. Office Hours 2:30-4:30 in new wing of Chaffee.
Bring Index Cards just in case Pop Quiz
Sakai/Modules: Study Aids
http//uri.sona-systems.com for PSY Surveys if any research projects are
iClicker Channel 41
Jan. 23 , 2013
Psychology: The scientific study of mind and behavior.
-Psychologists: Determine cause and effect in relationships.
-Use empirical methods (numbers to quantify behavior)
-"So and so did this 47 times."
-Goal is to predict and control behavior.
Takes place in natural habitat of subject without disrupting the
natural behavior that is taking place.
o Jane Goodall
One or Few Participants
“The Case of Genie”
Problems with Case Studies:
Low Internal Validity: Whether or not observations/conclusions of
subject were accurate.
o Case studies tend to be retrospective.
o Uncontrolled variables
Genie: Possibly already mentally retarded/experienced
other forms of abuse besides language deprivation.
o Unsure of cause/effect.
Low External Validity: Attempting to study one subject to learn about others.
Genie may not be representative of other people. The Survey Technique:
The Kinsey Study on Human Sexuality (1948, 1953)
o High External Validity: N=20,000 (With chance of Bias)
o Internal Validity: The truth of reported behavior.
Can determine cause/effect relationships.
Goal is to disprove Null Hypothesis.
o If results would have occurred fewer than 5/100 times (0.05),
the null hypotheses can be rejected if Independent Variable
was manipulated and did not effect the Dependent Variable.
Consider Operational Definitions:
o The conditions in which the experiment was conducted.
Experiment Group/Control Group
o Placebo Treatment
o Single: Only researchers know difference between
o Double: Neither the participants or researchers know.
Correlational Studies: Do not determine cause and effect.
Determines if two variables are related.
Correlation Coefficients: A number between -1.00 and +1.00 (r) that
represents the relationship between the positive or negative correlation.
-1.00: The strongest Negative relationship
+1.00: The strongest Positive relationship
Positive: Same direction
Negative: Opposite Directions
-Confounds: The static that gets in the way of finding out if you
have a true effect. Analyzing Data:
-Descriptive: Describes Data
-Inferential statistics: To make inferences about data
Three Measures of Central Tendency:
-Mean (Average), Median (Middle), Mode (Most Frequently Occurring)
Measures of Variability:
-Standard Deviation: The Average Deviation from the Mean
-Results are significant; can reject null hypothesis
Terms of Social Psych: Fundamental Attribution Error: Dispositional Traits vs. Situational Context
Making inferences about someone‟s behavior. (Jerk/In a hurry)
The Asch Effect: Social Conformity
Experiment: Everyone giving certain answers to questions, seeing
effect/if subject gave group answer.
Ex: Katy Genovese: 38 Bystanders w/ no Intervention
Factors: Presence of Others, Ambiguity, Perceived Cost, Similarity,
Mood, Gender, Social Norms
Deindividuation: When people take on group identity and lose individuality.
Fight at sporting event that you abnormally end up participating in.
o Partially due to a sense of anonymity.
Social Facilitation: How you act when being watched.
In-Groups: You belong; social identity belongs.
Out-Groups: Not a part of, unlike you.
o “Us-Them” Thinking
Prejudice: Unjustified/Incorrect attitudes
Irrational Suspicion/Preformed Opinion
Hate of a Group/Religion
Leads to Discrimination
o The behavioral reaction to the attitude.
“Because I think this, I will do/say this.”
Covert: Not openly practiced/engaged in.
o Body Language Overt: Openly observable
o Open name calling
o When called Racist (Beverly Tatum):
Never automatically reject, stop and think. Biological Psychology February 13 , 2013
Central Nervous System: Brain and Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System: Everything Else
Somatic Nervous System: Skeletal Muscles; Voluntary Actions
o Consists of Sensory (Sense) and Motor (Movement) Nerves
Autonomic: Visceral Muscles and Glands; Involuntary Actions
Sympathetic Nervous System: Controls Organs during Stress
Parasympathetic Nervous System: Controls Organs during Rest
Part of Somatic Nervous System
o Simple Neural Pathways
The Stretch Reflex
o Knee-Kick Reflex
Synapse: Gap between neurons
Afferent Neurons: Carry signals from body to CNS
Efferent Neurons: carry signals from CNS to the rest of the body.
Cell Body: Also called the Soma
Resting Membrane Potential(RMP) is -70 mV Cell is more negative inside than outside; It is polarized and waiting to
produce a signal.
Action Potential: RMP shoots up when delivering a message and
goes right back down.
Temporal characteristics transmit different stimuli intensities.
Myelin Sheathe: White fatty tissues along axon.
Nodes of Ranvier: Gaps between Myelin
Messages between Two Neurons:
1. Neuron 1 reaches 2.
2. Pre-synaptic terminal contains neurotransmitters
3. Releases NT into Synapse, some reaches neuron 2‟s Post-Synaptic
Vesicles, gets passed along.
4. Re-uptake (Enzymes) break down unused neurotransmitter in order to
make more later on and clean synapse.
5. Curari: Blocks Motor Output but emphasizes Sensory Input “Transmission of a neutral signal between neurons is a chemical
Frontal Lobe: Involved in planning/movement and self awareness.
o Phineas P. Gage: Railroad Injury
Parietal Lobe: Somatosensory/Spatial Information
o More fine tuned movement than Frontal. (Karate)
Occipital Lobe: Vision
Temporal Lobe: Audition (Hearing), Memory, and Language
Corpus Callosum: Fibers that hold hemispheres together.
Motor Cortex (Red)
Contralateral: Opposite side controlled by respective hemisphere.
Ipsilateral: Same side
Somatosensory Cortex (Blue)
The Central Core:
Brain Stem: Oldest part of Brain
Midbrain: All sensory info traveling to brain.
Pons: “Bridge” between two halves of Cerebellum.
Medulla: Controls necessary functions o Heartbeat, Breathing, etc.
RAS: Reticular Activating System
o Nerve Fibers running up/down stem.
Thalamus: Very middle, sends info to proper lobes.
Limbic System: Responsible for Emotion (Second Oldest)
o Regulates Emotion
Homeostasis: Maintaining optimal levels of needs.
Food, Liquids; Nutrients.
Cerebral Cortex: Newest Part of Brain
Optic Chiasma: Sends Left Eye info to Right and Vice Versa.
Left frontal lobe of a right handed individual
With damage, can still speak in a meaningful way but does not
Damage is more serious
Loss of speech comprehension
Can produce strings of words with accurate articulation, but are not
literate. Sensation and Perception
(Psychophysics) February 27 , 2013
Sensation: The detection and encoding of stimuli.
Absolute Threshold: The minimum magnitude of stimulus that can
be detected 50% of the time.
o Softest touch, sound, dimmest light
The minimum difference in stimulus magnitude necessary to tell
two stimuli apart.
E. H. Weber
o Came up with Weber fraction.
o K= 1/50
o One more pound to a fifty pound weight to notice difference.
Gustav Fechner (1801-1887)
S = k log I
Sign wave height determines amplitude/intensity of light
Wavelength: distance between peaks
Color of light
10 to the 6 meters – 10 to the -14
o Humans can see 800nm to 400nm
Aqueous Humor provides lens nutrition.
o Allows accommodation
o Can be stretched/relaxed within the eye.
Retina: upside down image of world in back of eye.
Fovea: dead center of the back of retina.
o High detailed vision
o Blind spot
o Where optic nerve leaves the eye Transduction:
o Changes light energy to Neural energy
o Help us see at night
o Have us see color (RGB)
o Fovea is rich with cone cells and allows highly detailed vision
Opponent Process Theory
o One section of brain responds to red and green
o Another responds to Yellows and Blues.
With this theory, neither can mix.
An organism‟s awareness of objects and events in its environment
based on interpretation.
Illusion: Perception differs systematically from physical reality.
The Stroop Effect (Colors/Words)
Transduction in the auditory system:
The movement of hair cells transforms sensory info into an
Closure: When the eyes adapt to a new lighting environment
Gestalt Principle of Proximity:
Perception of things that are closer together being a unitary group.
Bottom-Up Processing: Raw Information/Sensory Data
Top-Down Processing: Driven by Knowledge Developmental Psychology
Development of the Individual
Zygote: Egg plus Sperm
Cephalocaudal and Proximodistal
o Head/Tail and Near/Far
o Genetically inherited
o Inability to metabolize amino acid Phenylalanine
o Treated with dietary restrictions
Down‟s Syndrome: (Trisomy -21)
o Extra 21 Chromosome
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
o Sensorimotor Period (0-2 Years)
Mental Representation (Object Permanence)
Is able to differentiate self from objects
o Preoperational Period (2-7 Years)
Conservation of Volume, Mass and Number
o Concrete Operational Period (7-11 Years)
o Formal Operations Period (12+ Years)
Now fully logical
Erik Erikson (1902-1994) Stages of Psychosocial Development
o First Year: Trust/Mistrust
o Second Year: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
“Can I control my own behavior?”
o Third-Fifth Year: Initiative vs. Guilt
“Can I become independent of my parents?”
o Sixth Year to Puberty: Competence vs. Inferiority
“Can I master important skills?”
o Adolescence: Identity vs. Role Confusion
“Who am I?” “What do I think and believe?”
o Young Adulthood: Intimacy vs. Isolation “Can I develop a warm sharing relationship with
o Middle Adulthood: Generativity vs. Stagnation
“What can I offer?”
o Late Adulthood: Integrity vs. Despair
“Have I found contentment through my work and play?”
Lawrence Kohlberg (1963)
o Hypothetical Moral Dilemmas
o Pre-Conventional: Acquiring moral. Will only obey rules to
o Conventional: Reason for answering is important.