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Course Notes for Psychology 113 (University of Rhode Island: Spring 2013).docx

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PSY 113
Susan Boatright

Michael Genese Psy 113 Notes: Quiz #1 – Research Methods TA: Dorothy. Office Hours 2:30-4:30 in new wing of Chaffee. Bring Index Cards just in case Pop Quiz Sakai/Modules: Study Aids http// for PSY Surveys if any research projects are assigned iClicker Channel 41 _____________________________________________________________ Jan. 23 , 2013 Psychology: The scientific study of mind and behavior. -Psychologists: Determine cause and effect in relationships. -Use empirical methods (numbers to quantify behavior) -"So and so did this 47 times." -Goal is to predict and control behavior. Naturalistic Observation:  Takes place in natural habitat of subject without disrupting the natural behavior that is taking place. o Jane Goodall Case Studies:  One or Few Participants  “The Case of Genie” Problems with Case Studies:  Low Internal Validity: Whether or not observations/conclusions of subject were accurate. o Case studies tend to be retrospective. o Uncontrolled variables  Genie: Possibly already mentally retarded/experienced other forms of abuse besides language deprivation. o Unsure of cause/effect. Low External Validity: Attempting to study one subject to learn about others.  Genie may not be representative of other people. The Survey Technique:  The Kinsey Study on Human Sexuality (1948, 1953) o High External Validity: N=20,000 (With chance of Bias) o Internal Validity: The truth of reported behavior. The Experiment:  Can determine cause/effect relationships.  Goal is to disprove Null Hypothesis. o If results would have occurred fewer than 5/100 times (0.05), the null hypotheses can be rejected if Independent Variable was manipulated and did not effect the Dependent Variable. -Procedure:  Consider Operational Definitions: o The conditions in which the experiment was conducted.  Experiment Group/Control Group o Placebo Treatment  Blind Study: o Single: Only researchers know difference between Control/Experimental Groups o Double: Neither the participants or researchers know. Correlational Studies: Do not determine cause and effect.  Determines if two variables are related. Correlation Coefficients: A number between -1.00 and +1.00 (r) that represents the relationship between the positive or negative correlation.  -1.00: The strongest Negative relationship  +1.00: The strongest Positive relationship Positive: Same direction Negative: Opposite Directions  -Confounds: The static that gets in the way of finding out if you have a true effect. Analyzing Data: -Statistics: -Descriptive: Describes Data -Inferential statistics: To make inferences about data Three Measures of Central Tendency: -Mean (Average), Median (Middle), Mode (Most Frequently Occurring) Measures of Variability: -Range -Standard Deviation: The Average Deviation from the Mean -P=<0.05 -Results are significant; can reject null hypothesis Terms of Social Psych: Fundamental Attribution Error: Dispositional Traits vs. Situational Context  Making inferences about someone‟s behavior. (Jerk/In a hurry) The Asch Effect: Social Conformity  Experiment: Everyone giving certain answers to questions, seeing effect/if subject gave group answer.  Brad Bystander Intervention:  Ex: Katy Genovese: 38 Bystanders w/ no Intervention  Factors: Presence of Others, Ambiguity, Perceived Cost, Similarity, Mood, Gender, Social Norms Deindividuation: When people take on group identity and lose individuality.  Fight at sporting event that you abnormally end up participating in. o Partially due to a sense of anonymity. Social Facilitation: How you act when being watched.  You. In/Out Groups  In-Groups: You belong; social identity belongs.  Out-Groups: Not a part of, unlike you. o “Us-Them” Thinking Prejudice: Unjustified/Incorrect attitudes  Irrational Suspicion/Preformed Opinion  Hate of a Group/Religion  Inaccurate stereotypes  Leads to Discrimination o The behavioral reaction to the attitude.  “Because I think this, I will do/say this.” Racism:  Covert: Not openly practiced/engaged in. o Body Language  Overt: Openly observable o Open name calling o When called Racist (Beverly Tatum):  Never automatically reject, stop and think. Biological Psychology February 13 , 2013 Nervous System:  Central Nervous System: Brain and Spinal Cord  Peripheral Nervous System: Everything Else  Somatic Nervous System: Skeletal Muscles; Voluntary Actions o Consists of Sensory (Sense) and Motor (Movement) Nerves  Autonomic: Visceral Muscles and Glands; Involuntary Actions  Sympathetic Nervous System: Controls Organs during Stress  Parasympathetic Nervous System: Controls Organs during Rest Reflex Arcs:  Part of Somatic Nervous System o Simple Neural Pathways  The Stretch Reflex o Knee-Kick Reflex Synapse: Gap between neurons  Afferent Neurons: Carry signals from body to CNS  Efferent Neurons: carry signals from CNS to the rest of the body.  Cell Body: Also called the Soma Pain Withdrawal: Resting Membrane Potential(RMP) is -70 mV Cell is more negative inside than outside; It is polarized and waiting to produce a signal.  Action Potential: RMP shoots up when delivering a message and goes right back down. Temporal characteristics transmit different stimuli intensities. Myelin Sheathe: White fatty tissues along axon. Myelinated Axon Nodes of Ranvier: Gaps between Myelin Messages between Two Neurons: 1. Neuron 1 reaches 2. 2. Pre-synaptic terminal contains neurotransmitters 3. Releases NT into Synapse, some reaches neuron 2‟s Post-Synaptic Vesicles, gets passed along. 4. Re-uptake (Enzymes) break down unused neurotransmitter in order to make more later on and clean synapse. 5. Curari: Blocks Motor Output but emphasizes Sensory Input “Transmission of a neutral signal between neurons is a chemical phenomenon.” The Brain:  Central/Lateral Fissure  Frontal Lobe: Involved in planning/movement and self awareness. o Phineas P. Gage: Railroad Injury  Parietal Lobe: Somatosensory/Spatial Information o More fine tuned movement than Frontal. (Karate)  Occipital Lobe: Vision  Temporal Lobe: Audition (Hearing), Memory, and Language Processing  Corpus Callosum: Fibers that hold hemispheres together.  Motor Cortex (Red) Physical Movement  Contralateral: Opposite side controlled by respective hemisphere.  Ipsilateral: Same side Somatosensory Cortex (Blue)  Sensory Movement The Central Core:  Brain Stem: Oldest part of Brain  Midbrain: All sensory info traveling to brain.  Pons: “Bridge” between two halves of Cerebellum.  Medulla: Controls necessary functions o Heartbeat, Breathing, etc.  RAS: Reticular Activating System o Nerve Fibers running up/down stem. Thalamus: Very middle, sends info to proper lobes. Limbic System: Responsible for Emotion (Second Oldest)  Septal Aera  Amygdala  Hippocampus: Memories  Hypothalamus o Regulates Emotion Homeostasis: Maintaining optimal levels of needs.  Food, Liquids; Nutrients.  Temperature Cerebral Cortex: Newest Part of Brain Optic Chiasma: Sends Left Eye info to Right and Vice Versa. Broca‟s Area:  Left frontal lobe of a right handed individual  With damage, can still speak in a meaningful way but does not sound fluent. Wermicke‟s Area:  Damage is more serious  Loss of speech comprehension  Can produce strings of words with accurate articulation, but are not literate. Sensation and Perception (Psychophysics) February 27 , 2013 Sensation: The detection and encoding of stimuli.  Absolute Threshold: The minimum magnitude of stimulus that can be detected 50% of the time. o Softest touch, sound, dimmest light Difference Threshold  The minimum difference in stimulus magnitude necessary to tell two stimuli apart.  E. H. Weber o Came up with Weber fraction. o K= 1/50 o One more pound to a fifty pound weight to notice difference. Gustav Fechner (1801-1887)  S = k log I Light  Sign wave height determines amplitude/intensity of light  Wavelength: distance between peaks Color of light th th  10 to the 6 meters – 10 to the -14 o Humans can see 800nm to 400nm Vision  Convex Lens  Aqueous Humor provides lens nutrition. o Allows accommodation o Can be stretched/relaxed within the eye.  Retina: upside down image of world in back of eye.  Fovea: dead center of the back of retina. o High detailed vision  Optic Disc: o Blind spot o Where optic nerve leaves the eye  Transduction: o Changes light energy to Neural energy  Rods o Help us see at night  Cones: o Have us see color (RGB) o Fovea is rich with cone cells and allows highly detailed vision Ewald Herring  Opponent Process Theory o One section of brain responds to red and green o Another responds to Yellows and Blues.  With this theory, neither can mix. Perception:  An organism‟s awareness of objects and events in its environment based on interpretation. Illusion: Perception differs systematically from physical reality. The Stroop Effect (Colors/Words) Transduction in the auditory system:  The movement of hair cells transforms sensory info into an electrical charge Closure: When the eyes adapt to a new lighting environment Gestalt Principle of Proximity:  Perception of things that are closer together being a unitary group. Context:  Bottom-Up Processing: Raw Information/Sensory Data  Top-Down Processing: Driven by Knowledge Developmental Psychology Development of the Individual  Zygote: Egg plus Sperm  Cephalocaudal and Proximodistal o Head/Tail and Near/Far  Phenylketonuria: o Genetically inherited o Inability to metabolize amino acid Phenylalanine o Treated with dietary restrictions  Down‟s Syndrome: (Trisomy -21) st o Extra 21 Chromosome Cognitive Psychology:  Jean Piaget (1896-1980) o Sensorimotor Period (0-2 Years)  Mental Representation (Object Permanence)  Is able to differentiate self from objects o Preoperational Period (2-7 Years)  Serialization (Organization)  Conservation of Volume, Mass and Number  Egocentric o Concrete Operational Period (7-11 Years)  A>B>C. A>C? o Formal Operations Period (12+ Years)  Now fully logical  Erik Erikson (1902-1994) Stages of Psychosocial Development o First Year: Trust/Mistrust o Second Year: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt  “Can I control my own behavior?” o Third-Fifth Year: Initiative vs. Guilt  “Can I become independent of my parents?” o Sixth Year to Puberty: Competence vs. Inferiority  “Can I master important skills?” o Adolescence: Identity vs. Role Confusion  “Who am I?” “What do I think and believe?” o Young Adulthood: Intimacy vs. Isolation  “Can I develop a warm sharing relationship with someone?” o Middle Adulthood: Generativity vs. Stagnation  “What can I offer?” o Late Adulthood: Integrity vs. Despair  “Have I found contentment through my work and play?”  Lawrence Kohlberg (1963) o Hypothetical Moral Dilemmas o Pre-Conventional: Acquiring moral. Will only obey rules to avoid punishment. o Conventional: Reason for answering is important. o Post-Conventio
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