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Chapter 11

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PSY 235
Taryn Aldrich

11/12/13 Chapter 11 Male-female differences Male-female differences • Physical differences ◦ height, facial hair, genitalia, hormones ◦ “Anatomy is destiny” (Freud) ▪ Different genitals lead to different life experiences • Females are typically described as: ◦ emotional, nurturing, submissive, sociable, poor at math, passive and suggestible • Males are typically described as: ◦ rational, independent, dominant, objective, aggressive, and active • Research shows there is not much validity to these characteristic attributions ◦ There is substantial overlap between the distributions of male and female traits and behaviors ◦ This overlap occurs for most characteristics, even when the sex difference is reliable • Some reliable differences are found: ◦ Males have better spatial skills ◦ Females have better verbal skills ◦ Males are more aggressive ◦ Females are better communicators Ahistory of gender difference • Evidence from ancient civilizations ◦ Fertility and nurturance (F) versus hunting and warring (M) ◦ Development of concept of male moral superiority • Nineteenth-century views ◦ Darwin's influence ◦ Freud's theories Biological influences • Chromosomes: ◦ Xx vs XY determine genetic sex ◦ Testes develop in XY embryos; produce androgen (male hormone) ◦ Androgen (or lack thereof) initiates development of male or female genitalia • Androgen exposure may affect brain development and personality ◦ Animal studies ◦ Human studies ▪ XXX, XXY, XYY chromosome configurations ▪ Turner's syndrome (X0) ◦ Sex hormones and behavior ▪ Androgenized females • Hormones during and after puberty ◦ Major differences in the amounts of hormones produced during and after puberty ◦ Cyclic vs non-cyclic nature of hormonal fluctuation ▪ Mood swings, emotionality, etc. ▪ Social and political implications The psychoanalytic approach • Differences in traits arise from emotional responses to differences in the physical structure o boys and girls ◦ Castration anxiety ◦ Penis envy ◦ Identification with same-sex parent The neo-analytic approach • Erik Erikson ◦ Male traits are tied to outward-extending genitalia ◦ Female traits are tied to internal genitalia • Karen Horney ◦ Women envy men's opportunities in society, not their penises • Carl Jung ◦ Anima- the feminine inner personality that is present in the unconscious of males ◦ Animus- the masculine inner personality that is present in the unconscious of females ◦ The healthy personality incorporates masculine and feminine ◦ Incorporate yin and yang ▪ Male and female are complimentary, and each contains a portion of the other Biological/EvolutionaryApproach • Successful rep
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