ST 210 Lecture 1: Ch.1a Notes

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Published on 10 Mar 2017
ST 210
Introduction to the Practice of Statistics
Statistics - the science of collecting, organizing, summarizing and analyzing information to
draw conclusions
Data - a fact or proposition used to draw a conclusion or make a decision; list of observed
values for a variable
o Data describes characteristics and can be quantitative or qualitative
Population - the entire group to be studied
Sample - a subset of the population being studied
Individual - a person or object that is a member of population being studied
Statistic - a numerical summary of a sample
Parameter - a numerical summary of a population
Descriptive Statistics - describes data through numerical summaries, tables, and graphs
Inferential Statistics - take results from a sample, extend it to the population and measure
the reliability of the result
Qualitative Variable - or categorical, variables allow for classification of individuals based
on some attribute or characteristic (Gender, Zip Code) the corresponding data that is
collected is called Qualitative Data
Quantitative Variable - provide numerical measures of individuals (Temperature, days a
student studies) the corresponding data that is collected is called Quantitative Data
o The values of quantitative variables can be added or subtracted and provide
meaningful results
Discrete Variable - quantitative variable that has either a finite number of possible values
or a countable number of possible values
Continuous Variable - quantitative variable that has an infinite number of possible values
that are not countable
The Process of Statistics
Step 1: Identify the Research Objective
o The researchers need to determine detailed questions to be answered
Step 2: Collect the Data Needed to Answer the Question(s)
o Data collection is typically done on a sample of a population and choosing the
sample correctly is very important
Step 3: Describe the Data
o Descriptive statistics allow the researcher to obtain an overview of the data
Step 4: Perform Inference
o Using different statistical techniques allow the results from the sample to be applied
to an entire population reliably
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