IR 212 Lecture 2: Lecture 2

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7 Feb 2017

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Week 2 Lecture 2
Tuesday Jan 17th
State formation and the birth of the modern European states-system
Key Terms
- The modern state/State formation
- Raison D’etat
- Cardinal de Richelieu versus Ferdinand II
- William II vs Louis XIV
Cardinal de Richelieu (All about power) versus Ferdinand II (All about religion):
· Ferdinand (The holy roman emperor) saw Europe as true believers threatened by
· The middle ages thought about European governance as the organization of the believers
(Christian God) In Church Medieval Christendom breaks down
· 1500-1600’s the splintering of Christendom into a lot of different Christian groupings
which creates a problem for governance If governance is an organization of Christendom
then when it breaks down there creates issues.
· Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinist, Anglican, Bohemian and Moravian Brethren, Anabaptist,
Eastern Orthodox, Islamic = types of religion in Europe
· Abandon the true approach to the faith Medieval approach is
· True believer’s vs Heretics, believed he was going to win because God was on his side
· Unless he can smite the heretics and force them to become roman Catholics there is no
way for him to dictate world order
· The Habsburg (Ferdinand) ran the Holy Roman Empire and also controlled a lot in Spain
(through strategic marriages) which at the time was the greatest empire in the world
· Richelieu was a Cardinal Saw Europe as Kingdom of France threatened by Habsburg
· He was apparently more Catholic than the Pope, he supported the Church, his passion
was to support France
· Lives in an intellectual environment where rationalism is coming about, applies it to the
state of France
· Richelieu created the 6 principles of realism and how states operate in the modern world
Borrowed ideas that came out of the intellectual climate and applied them to international
· Rationalism the idea of self interest was very controversial not just using your life to
obey God, thought it was a heretical idea
· He’s a man of the cloth and believes in the Roman Churches approach to God and tries
to argue that there is a difference between individuals and states
· Individuals should worry about heaven and hell but states are not going to heaven or hell
so the morality hat applies to individuals are different to states states are not individuals
who can sin
· States need to be strong enough to do what is necessary which is defined by the self
interest of the state
· Raison d’etat – Reason of state reason of state is different from reason on individuals
· States are not immortal, live on the earth and peruse their best interest
· Not interested in France becoming a beacon/city on a hill, France is a state and has self
interest which is defined in terms of power
· Saw a mortal threat to the independence of France, saw an opening in the different
religious groups and the princes who try and assert autonomy from the Empire (princes
revolting against the Emperor)
· If Ferdinand smites the Princes, then France is finished Decided to support the
Protestants and Muslims
· Tries to bleed the empire dry, 1/3 of the population of the Holy Roman Empire perished,
· Self interest is not enough to produce order France is dominant
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