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Lecture 6

LING 115gw Lecture 6: Unit 6- Pidgins and Creoles

by OneClass276680 , Fall 2017
4 Pages
62 Views
Fall 2017

Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LING 115gw
Professor
Simpson Andrew
Lecture
6

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Unit 6: Pidgins and Creoles – the birth and creation of new languages!
!
Pidgins & Creoles = languages which are created in multi-lingual environments by the need of
speakers of mutually unintelligible languages to communicate with each other !
Most commonly speakers of 3 or more languages !
Usually one linguistic group will be dominant and a simple language that is a mixture of all of
the languages spoken in a social environment will be created -- known as a pidgin
Over a period of time, these languages are increase in complexity and gain native
speakers, transforming the original pidgin form into a creole
Basic Properties!
Pidgin has no native speakers and is a contact language created when speakers of 2
languages need to communicate with each other!
Examples:!
(1) Slaves (from Africa) / their owners (English-speakers) in the American south and
the Caribbean in the 19th century !
(2) Trade languages along coastal areas mostly in the tropics (esp. West Africa/SE
Asia)!
(3) Between North American Indian tribes, pidgin "Chinook Jargon" was formed!
(4) Pineapple plantations in Hawaii used "Hawaiian Pidgin English" among immigrant
workers !
(5) Developed during wars!
Usually thought of as a simplified version of the dominant linguistic group amongst the
languages needing to be mixed for communication purposes!
Horizontal Interaction (or Horizontal Relations) - contact between two groups with a lack of
power, might also result in a pidgin involving the dominant language as well b/c these
subordinate groups usually also have contact with the dominant group !
i.e. two slave groups interacting with each other !
Vertical Interaction (or Vertical Relations) - contact between one subordinate group with a
higher-power, more dominant group!
Pidgins generally begin to communicate referential information (factual info + instructions),
NOT for social convos --> once they begin to develop more grammar, etc. they are used for
aective interactions!
!
Attitudes towards Pidgins/Creoles
People often think of them as "reduced" forms of "regular" languages --> might result in
speakers of being seen as cognitively deficient in a certain way !
Reasons for negative impressions:!
(1) Pidgins are not standardized in grammars/dictionaries!
(2) No historicity!
(3) Lack autonomy - not seen to be distinct, are often seen to be "reduced" forms of other
languages!
!
Pidgin --> Creole Cycle!
Creoles are pidgins that have become the first language of a generation of speakers!
Pidgins are always spoken by people as a second/third/fourth language!
Pidginisation: creation of a pidgin, involves the simplification of some language !
Reduction in morphology and syntax, reduction in number of functional domains!
Creolisation: creation of a creole, involves the expansion of the morphology and syntax of a
pidgin, and an increase in the number of domains the language is used!

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Description
Unit 6: Pidgins and Creoles the birth and creation of new languages Pidgins Creoles = languages which are created in multilingual environments by the need of speakers of mutually unintelligible languages to communicate with each other Most commonly speakers of 3 or more languages Usually one linguistic group will be dominant and a simple language that is a mixture of all of the languages spoken in a social environment will be created known as a pidgin Over a period of time, these languages are increase in complexity and gain native speakers, transforming the original pidgin form into a creole Basic Properties Pidgin has no native speakers and is a contact language created when speakers of 2 languages need to communicate with each other Examples: (1) Slaves (from Africa) their owners (Englishspeakers) in the American south and the Caribbean in the 19th century (2) Trade languages along coastal areas mostly in the tropics (esp. West AfricaSE Asia) (3) Between North American Indian tribes, pidgin Chinook Jargon was formed (4) Pineapple plantations in Hawaii used Hawaiian Pidgin English among immigrant workers (5) Developed during wars Usually thought of as a simplied version of the dominant linguistic group amongst the languages needing to be mixed for communication purposes Horizontal Interaction (or Horizontal Relations) contact between two groups with a lack of power, might also result in a pidgin involving the dominant language as well bc these subordinate groups usually also have contact with the dominant group i.e. two slave groups interacting with each other Vertical Interaction (or Vertical Relations) contact between one subordinate group with a higherpower, more dominant group Pidgins generally begin to communicate referential information (factual info + instructions), NOT for social convos > once they begin to develop more grammar, etc. they are used for aective interactions Attitudes towards PidginsCreoles People often think of them as reduced forms of regular languages > might result in speakers of being seen as cognitively decient in a certain way Reasons for negative impressions: (1) Pidgins are not standardized in grammarsdictionaries (2) No historicity (3) Lack autonomy not seen to be distinct, are often seen to be reduced forms of other languages Pidgin > Creole Cycle Creoles are pidgins that have become the rst language of a generation of speakers Pidgins are always spoken by people as a secondthirdfourth language Pidginisation: creation of a pidgin, involves the simplication of some language Reduction in morphology and syntax, reduction in number of functional domains Creolisation: creation of a creole, involves the expansion of the morphology and syntax of a pidgin, and an increase in the number of domains the language is used
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