PSYC 437 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Relativism, Cognitive Development, Information Processing
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Review for Midterm #1 Cognitive Development:
Basic Cognitive Changes on Adolescence:
Thinking about possibilities
-The capacity to make more accurate predictions about the future. As opposed to a child’s here
and now way of thinking
Thinking about abstract concepts
Meta-Cognition (Thinking about thinking)
Thinking in multiple dimensions
Inductive Problem Solving:
Reasoning based on the accumulated information. This type of reasoning is dependent on the specific
information that is available.
Deductive Problem Solving:
Logical connections are made between different items of information
Don’t need to have direct experience
Dependent on making logical connections
Important for perspective taking – can understand where other people are coming from and their actions.
Critical for sophisticated behavior and relationships
Abstract and Concrete Thinking:
Concrete Thought: Focus on the observable properties of objects or situations
Abstract Thought: Recognition of higher order relations between objects that may not be directly
observable. The capacity to reason based on inferred properties.
-Inferring beyond what is observable
-Critical for relationships “He understands me, he is trustworthy, etc”
Jean Piaget: (STAGE LIKE PROCESS, consequence of interactions)
Cognitive development is a stage-like process, which is marked by fundamental reorganizations
Development occurs as a consequence of interactions between a child’s maturing biological capabilities
Criticism: What is changing? He never talked about what exactly is changing.
Information processing perspectives:
Computer as metaphor for human thought
Focus on the ways that adolescents receive, process, and understand information.
Some areas of investigation
-Processing Speed: Adolescents think quicker than children
-Meta-Cognition: Adolescents refine their thought processes.
Lev Vtgotsky: (imbedded in the social environment)
Cognitive development is a process that is imbedded in the social environment
Cognitive strategies are learned through social interactions
Children develop intellectually by interacting with adults who are more cognitively skilled