PSYC 437 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Peer Pressure, Industrial Revolution, Behaviorism
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Review for Midterm 1: Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescence
Common Stereotypes of Adolescence:
A time of stress
Peer pressure is a controlling influence
A time of rebellion and conflict with parents
A time of turmoil and brooding
Salient Developmental Tasks:
Issues that are of particular concern during specific periods of development
They are tasks that a youth must negotiate successfully to make the transition from
childhood to adolescence and then to adulthood.
Early Adolescence: Instability in Self Image
Middle Adolescence: Early romantic relationships
Social transitions occur across the lifespan
What are some of legal transitions of an adolescent? The rights to drink, vote, and drive
As adolescence unfolds, we get an increased control of education.
Historical and Cultural Perspectives:
Adolescence did not exist before the industrial revolution
Child Labor Laws
Compulsory Education (Period of education that is required of persons, imposed by law.
In some countries the education needs to take place at a registered school. Other
countries allow the education to happen outside of school, for example via
Juvenile Delinquency Laws (Juvenile Deliquent: person who is under age, who is found
to have committed a crime in states which have decalred by law that a minor lacks
responsibility and thus may not be sentenced as an adult)
The Secular Trend (Secular Trend in development is the fact that puberty is starting
earlier for boys and girls than it did in the past)
Stanley Hall’s Biopsychological Perspective:
Development mirrors evolution. Humans evolved from an animal like stage to a civilized
stage. (Darwin) Species through evolutionary stage becomes more and more developed.
With development, the child moves from primitive stage to a sophisticated and
emotionally mature stage.
Stanley Hall’s stage of development
From Hall, we get the notion that adolescence is a time of storm and stress
He was the first to say adolescence is different from every other stage of development (A
unique stage in time)
He gave a dark view of adolescence
Behavior and development is driven by instinctual energy, the driving force behind
human behavior. (ID, EGO, SUPER-EGO)
Freud described stages of psychosocial development but saw adolescence as a time when
major conflicts were already resolved. Latency=adolescence.
Energy flows between the ID, Ego, and Super-Ego
She revised her theory to focus more on adolescence
Argued that it is a period of regression to earlier conflicts
The id-supergo conflicts reemerge and lead to the development of neurotic anxiety. And
adolescents develop a new way to cope with the anxiety.
Focused on the role of the ego instead ID
-The ego is how you propose to negotiate reality
Development is organized around a series of crises. These crises occur when a
individual’s goals are in conflict with restraints of reality.
BF Skinner and Behaviorism: (DEVELOPMENT=ACCUMULATION OF LEARNING)
Focuses on learning
Development occurs as a result of accumulation of learning
He claims adolescence is not really a unique developmental stage because learning occurs
across the lifespan
Focus is on how people organize and process information
Higher order cognitive structures called schemas are presumed to guide interactions with
Example: The tendency to perceive the world aggressively or hostile.
Brofenbranner’s Interactions across systems
Interactions between the adolescent and his social environment are affected by the larger
social context including the community, culture, nation, and world economic, and
To understand development, we must also understand context.
The social systems that immediately influence the adolescent everyday and vice versa
Structures include the family, school, and neighborhood
Includes link between the structures of child’s microsystem
Examples: Relationships between teacher or other school officials (PTA) and parents.
Relations between the school and neighborhood structure.
These links in the microsystem affect the adolescent.
Large structure in which Adolescent is not necessarily directly exposed to this level of the
Structures in this layer impact development by influencing the microsystem. Example:
Workplace schedules for parents. The adolescent doesn’t come in contact with the
parent’s work place, but it affects them.
Includes cultural values, customs, and laws
The macrosystem influences all other aspects of a child’s environment
The historical context, everything is embedded in.
Review for Midterm 1: Biological Development
Common Stereotypes about Puberty:
Puberty is a time of raging hormones random fluctuations in hormones, which have a
powerful effect on the mood.
-In adolescence daily activites have a larger affect on the mood than hormones. They
have large fluctuations than adults do, that’s why they are moody.
Puberty has a sudden onset, beginning with out warning
-No, the day you’re born development begins. It sets the foundations for puberty. And
puberty is probably signaled by a fat content, it is a gradual process
Puberty starts at one specific point in time
-Changes occur over many years, unfolds across time and different stages.
Basic changes that occur during puberty:
Rapid increases in height and weight
Primary sex characteristics
Secondary Sex characteristics
Changes in body composition
Changes in circulatory and respiratory systems
Feedback loops in the Endocrine System:
What puberty is all about is the set point changing.
A set point is established for levels of a particular hormone in the body.
Endocrine system monitors levels and releases hormones when levels go below the set
point (Example: Thermostat)
The role of the HPG axis in puberty
Hypothalamus: monitors levels of Androgens and Estrogens, and communicates with the
Pituitary gland: secrets gonadotropins, which are hormones that control the gonads.
Gonads: structures that release the sex hormones. (Testes in males, ovaries in females)
The Growth Spurt:
Marked increase din height and weight. Accelerated growth begins in early in puberty.
Acceleration occurs earlier for females than males.
Growth A synchronicity: The rate of acceleration is greater for parts of the body that are
the furthest from the center. The legs, arms, and head are larger in proportion to the torso
The development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics:
Primary: Maturation of sexual organs used in reproduction
Secondary: Changes that reflect the maturation of sexual organs but don’t necessarily
correlate. Girls getting breasts and boys getting facial hair
Review for midterm 1: theoretical perspectives on adolescence. A time of rebellion and conflict with parents. Issues that are of particular concern during specific periods of development. They are tasks that a youth must negotiate successfully to make the transition from childhood to adolescence and then to adulthood. As adolescence unfolds, we get an increased control of education. Adolescence did not exist before the industrial revolution. Compulsory education (period of education that is required of persons, imposed by law. In some countries the education needs to take place at a registered school. Other countries allow the education to happen outside of school, for example via homeschooling. Juvenile delinquency laws (juvenile deliquent: person who is under age, who is found to have committed a crime in states which have decalred by law that a minor lacks responsibility and thus may not be sentenced as an adult)