PSYC 437 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Peer Pressure, Industrial Revolution, B. F. Skinner

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Published on 16 Jan 2016
PSYC 437
of 3
Review for Midterm 1: Theoretical Perspectives on Adolescence
Common Stereotypes of Adolescence:
A time of stress
Peer pressure is a controlling influence
A time of rebellion and conflict with parents
A time of turmoil and brooding
Salient Developmental Tasks:
Issues that are of particular concern during specific periods of development
They are tasks that a youth must negotiate successfully to make transition from
Early Adolescence:
Instability in Self Image
Middle Adolescence:
Early romantic relationships
Late Adolescence:
Social transitions occur across lifespan
What are some of legal transitions of adolescent? The rights to drink, vote, and
As adolescence unfolds, we get an increased control of education
Historical and Cultural Perspectives:
Adolescence did not exist before the industrial revolution
Child Labor Laws
Compulsory Education (Period of education that is required of persons, imposed
by law. In some countries the education needs to be take place at a registered
school. Other countries allow the education to happen outside of school, for
example via homeschooling)
Juvenile Deliquency Laws (Juvenile Deliquent: person who is under age, who is
found to have committed a crime in states which have declared by law that a
minor lacks responsibility and thus may not be sentenced as an adult)
The Secular Trend (Secular Trend in development is the fact that puberty is
starting earlier for boys and girls that it did in the past)
Stanley Hall’s Bio-psychological Perspective
Development mirrors evolution. Humans evolved from an animal like stage to a
civilized stage (Darwin). Species through evolutionary stage becomes more and
more developed.
With development, the child moves from primitive the child moves from
primitive stage to a sophisticated and emotionally mature
Stanley Hall’s stage of development:
From Hall, we get the notion that adolescence is a time of storm and stress
He was the first to say adolescence is different from every other stage of
development (A unique stage in time)
He gave a dark view of adolescence
Sigmund Freud: (When major conflicts were already resolved)
Behavior and development is driven by instinctual energy, the driving force
behind human behavior (ID, EGO, SUPER-EGO)
Freud described stages of psychosocial development but saw adolescence as a
time when major conflicts were already resolved.
Energy flows between the ID, Ego, and Super-Ego
Ana Freud: (Conflicts Reemerge)
She revised her theory to focus more on adolescence
Argued that is period of regression to earlier conflicts
The Id, Ego, Super-Ego, conflicts reemerge and lead to the development of
neurotic anxiety. And adolescents develop a new way to cope with the anxiety.
Erik Erikson:
Focused on the role of the Ego instead of Id
The ego is how you propose to negotiate reality
Development is organized around a series of crises.
BF Skinner and Behaviorism (Development=Accumulation of Learning)
Focuses on learning
Development occurs as a result of accumulation of learning
He claims adolescence is not a really a unique developmental stage because
learning occurs across the lifespan
Cognitive Perspectives:
Focus is on how people organize and process information
Higher order cognitive structures called schemas are presumed to guide
interactions with the environment
Example: The tendency to perceive the world aggressively or hostile
Brofenbranner’s Interaction Across Systems: (ADOLESCENT AND LARGE
Interactions between the adolescent and his social environment are affected by the
larger social context including the community, culture, nation, and world
economic, and political events
The social systems that immediately influence the adolescent everyday and vice
Structures include the family, school, and neighborhood
Includes link between the structures of child’s microsystem
Examples: Relationships between teacher or other school (PTA) and parents.
These links in the microsystem affect the adolescent.
Large structures in which adolescent is not necessarily directly exposed to this
level of the environment.
Structures in this layer impact development by influencing the microsystem. Ex)
Workplace schedules for parents. The adolescents doesn’t come in contact with
the parent’s work place, but it affects them.
Includes cultural values, customs, and laws
Macrosystem influences all other aspects of a child’s environment
The historical context, everything is embedded in.