PSYC 101 Lecture 2: Psych Notes (Research Methods)

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University of San Diego
PSYC 101
Pearlberg Steven

Research Methods: 1. Descriptive Research o Unobtrusive observation individual does not know theyre being studied o Advantages: Minimizes artificiality Easier to be collected o Purpose: Observe, collect, record o Disadvantages: No control over variables Biases No causality Naturalistic observation takes time to make sure youre completely unobtrusive o Case Study In depth study of a single research participant o Survey Assess attitudes and behaviors of a sample Advantages: Natural setting Unobtrusive Lots of data, quickly Cheap Disadvantages: Self reported data Social behaviorability bias people want to look better Attitudes, not behaviors Extraneous variables outside variables that you may be able to control Confounding Outside variables that you cannot control Response rate 2. Correlational Research o Statistical relationship between two things o Advantage: Clarify relationships Allow prediction o Disadvantages: No cause and effect (CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION) Third variable problem Ex: Correlation between intelligence and eating more carrots third variable is Socio Economic Status related to intelligence 3. Experimental Research o Manipulate an independent variable to cause a change in dependent variable o Experimental group receives a treatment o Control group Receives no treatment o Random assignment to conditions is essential o For something to be an experiment: Be able to manipulate the independent variable Random assignment o Independent Variable (IV) manipulated to determine its causal effect on the dependent variable
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