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Lecture 2

PSYC 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Naturalistic Observation, Random Assignment, Dependent And Independent VariablesPremium

4 pages19 viewsSpring 2017

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 101
Professor
Pearlberg Steven
Lecture
2

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Research Methods:
1. Descriptive Research
o Unobtrusive observation - individual does not know they're being studied
o Advantages:
Minimizes artificiality
Easier to be collected
o Purpose: Observe, collect, record
o Disadvantages:
No control over variables
Biases
No causality
Naturalistic observation - takes time to make sure you're completely unobtrusive
o Case Study - In depth study of a single research participant
o Survey - Assess attitudes and behaviors of a sample
Advantages:
Natural setting
Unobtrusive
Lots of data, quickly
Cheap
Disadvantages:
Self reported data - "Social behaviorability bias" - people want to look
better
Attitudes, not behaviors
Extraneous variables - outside variables that you may be able to control
Confounding - Outside variables that you cannot control
Response rate
2. Correlational Research
o Statistical relationship between two things
o Advantage:
Clarify relationships
Allow prediction
o Disadvantages:
No cause and effect (CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION)
Third variable problem - Ex: Correlation between intelligence and eating more
carrots- third variable is Socio Economic Status - related to intelligence
3. Experimental Research
o Manipulate an independent variable to cause a change in dependent variable
o Experimental group - receives a treatment
o Control group - Receives no treatment
o Random assignment to conditions is essential
o For something to be an experiment:
Be able to manipulate the independent variable
Random assignment
o Independent Variable (IV) - manipulated to determine its causal effect on the
dependent variable
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