ANT 304 Lecture 14: 09-26-16 ANT 304

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8 Feb 2017
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09-26-16 ANT 304
1. Clovis flourished 11,500-11,000 years ago for 500 years and then vanished
a. New hunter gatherer groups replaced it
b. Coincides with the disappearance ice age big game animals throughout the
world
i. Mammoth, mastodon, bison, sabretooth cats
2. Account for extinction of megafauna (large animals)
a. Overkill hypothesis: idea that Paleo-Indian hunters overkilled the new world
large animals through intensive hunting: no previous predators
i. Problem: many animals were going extinct before Paleo-Indian
ii. Paleo-Indian groups were too small to kill large (herds of) animals
b. Climate change: melted ice, warming causes new environments to form and the
habitat that the animals are used to is shrinking
i. This type of hange has happened efore, so hy ouldn’t they surie
this one?
c. Seasonal contrast: especially hard for the young and not enough survived to
reproduce
3. About 8,000 years ago, modern geography of North America is in place
a. Still have hunters and gatherers
b. Move out of Paleo-Indian to archaic- still hunting & gathering groups
c. Celebrations when people gather at certain cites where pecans grow, etc.
i. When the resources diminish, they splinter back off to different pecan
trees, animals, etc.
4. Archaic group trends
a. Smaller animals (white tailed deer), birds (seasonal, aquatic, etc.), fish
b. Less mobility- moved according to seasons rather than following herds
i. Only move 3-4 times and stay sedentary for a few months
c. Move towards sedentary settlement
i. Usually come back to the same place every season
ii. Villages come into play
5. One region that continues with hunter gatherer tradition like Paleo-Indians, but is in the
Archaic period
a. Alaska
b. Big game hunting survives- Bison belt
6. Hunting and gathering lasted until European contact
7. Bison kill sites
a. Stampede bison off cliffs and then retrieve their resources
b. Bison bones lie there, dirt piles up, more bison bones, etc.
c. Cyclical
8. Specialized lifeways
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