Class Notes (838,386)
United States (325,381)
Anthropology (136)
ANT 301 (51)
Chris Kirk (19)


4 Pages
Unlock Document

ANT 301
Chris Kirk

Australopithecines*** Monday, April 08, 2013 2:10 PM Au. Aafricanus is an austrialopithecine: • Superfamily Hominiodea: apes + humans o Family Hylobatidae: gibbons (Hylobates) o Family Pongidae: orangutans (Pongo) o Family Hominidae: African hominoids • Subfamily Gorillinae: Gorilla • ***** Australopithecines • Earliest/most primitive hominins; all from Africa • LIKE Homo and unlike Pan o Bipedal o Most have thick enamel o Varying degrees of canine reduction • UNLIKE Homo o Small brain (Like Pan) o Most have larger cheek teeth than any living hominoid. Toros-Menalla, Chad: 7-6 MYA: Ancient Lake Margin • Sahelanthropus tchadensis o Michel Burnet 2002 o Massive, thick supraorbital torus (like gorilla) o Very small endocrinal volume: 320 cc (Pan = 400 cc) o Small Molars o Not like most australopithecines o Why possible hominin? • Intermediate enamel thickness (< Homo; > apes) • Intermediate canine size w/apical wear o Digital Reconstruction from CT Scan found: • Less prognathic (jaw didn't stick out) • Supraorbital torus morphology differs from apes • Forward placement of foramen magnum (bipedal bone on neck) Tugen Hills, Kenya: 6 MYA: East African Rift Valley: River and Lake Deposits • Orrin tugenensis o Brigitte Senut & Martin Pickford, 2001 o Small molars with thick enamel o Large pointed canines o Distal humerus and long curved manual phalanx: climbing adaptations o Why hominin (besides thick enamel)? • Cortical bone in femoral neck asymmetrical (associated with bipedalism) Aramis, Ethiopia: 5.8-4.4 MYA: Afar Triangle: Middle Awash • Ardipithecus ramidus o Named in 1994 o Long powerful arm and small molars with think enamel (chimp-like) o BUT foramen magnum shifted forward … o Later ta same year, crushed skeleton found o Team spent next 15 years preparing and studying the skeleton… o "Ardi" : Adult female skeleton described 2009 o The bad news: • Cranium is busted up.. o The good news: • Most of it's there! • Digital reconstruction based on computerized tomography o Morphologically very primitive cranium. Small ECV (about 300 cc, similar to female chimp) o Arboreal climbing adaptations • Hand with long curved phalanges and short thumb • Foot with abducted hallux and long toes o BIPEDAL when on the ground • BUT_ pelvis reveals short, broad, laterally facing ilium o Final note: White et al. claim that Orrorin and Sahelanthropus are actually just Ardipithecus Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya 4.2-3.9 MYA • 1995 Alan Walker and Meave Leakey named a new species: Australopithecus anamensis • Jaw Chimp-Like: o Prognathic o Long and Narrow • HOWEVER
More Less

Related notes for ANT 301

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.