Wednesday, April 17, 2013
Luis and Mary Leakey Olduvai Gorge, Tranzania
• Found Oldowan tools. (Circular rock that was broken down that talked about in class)
• A juvenile hominin mandible with small cheek teeth…
• Unlike most australopiths but like modern humans
• Fragmentary cranium
o ECV ~ 700 cc
Larger brain than aus and pan
• Louis Leakey:
o New species: Homo habilis ("Handy man")
A. Habilis had a bigger brain and is therefore the tool maker at Olduvai Gorge.
• Richard Leakey:
o 1968: started work on eastern shore of Lake Trukana, Jenya
o Quickly found something different from aus.
• Found KNM-ER 1470 described as male Homo habilis.
Orthognathic and small cheek teeth ECV 509 cc
Evidence for extreme sexual dimorphism
Others argue that they were two different species at the same site:
• Homo rudolfensis (bigger morph-Richard's find)
• Homo habilis (smaller morph- Lous' find)
A. How old is the oldest Homo?
A. Maybe 2.4 MYA (based on orthognathic palates)
A. Both palates from Afar region of Ethiopia.
B. In South Africa
• Two partial skeleton show the expected australopith mosaic of postcranial features
1. Suspensory arboreality
• If earliest Homo appeared 2.5 MYA then Homo existed side-by-side with Au. Sediba and
• Also sharing the African landscape with early Homo:
• Robust Australopiths all in genus Paran ****
*An explosion in hominin diversity ~ 2.5-1.8 MYA