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Genus Homo.docx

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ANT 301
Chris Kirk

Genus Homo*** Wednesday, April 17, 2013 2:10 PM Luis and Mary Leakey Olduvai Gorge, Tranzania • Found Oldowan tools. (Circular rock that was broken down that talked about in class) • A juvenile hominin mandible with small cheek teeth… • Unlike most australopiths but like modern humans • Fragmentary cranium o ECV ~ 700 cc o Larger brain than aus and pan • Louis Leakey: o New species: Homo habilis ("Handy man") • Concluded: A. Habilis had a bigger brain and is therefore the tool maker at Olduvai Gorge. • Richard Leakey: o 1968: started work on eastern shore of Lake Trukana, Jenya o Quickly found something different from aus. • Found KNM-ER 1470 described as male Homo habilis.  Orthognathic and small cheek teeth ECV 509 cc  Evidence for extreme sexual dimorphism  Others argue that they were two different species at the same site: • Homo rudolfensis (bigger morph-Richard's find) • Homo habilis (smaller morph- Lous' find) A. How old is the oldest Homo? A. Maybe 2.4 MYA (based on orthognathic palates) A. Both palates from Afar region of Ethiopia. B. In South Africa Australopithecus sediba • Two partial skeleton show the expected australopith mosaic of postcranial features associated with: 1. Suspensory arboreality 2. Bipedalism • If earliest Homo appeared 2.5 MYA then Homo existed side-by-side with Au. Sediba and Au. Garhi • Also sharing the African landscape with early Homo: • Robust Australopiths all in genus Paran **** *An explosion in hominin diversity ~ 2.5-1.8 MYA It
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