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Genus Homo (prt 2)

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ANT 301
Chris Kirk

Genus Homo (prt2) Out of Africa Monday, April 22, 2013 2:07 PM Eugene Dubois • Dutch Anatomy Professor • 1888, Joined Dutch Foreign Legion to look for human fossils ("missing link" - inspired by Wallace) • Trinil, Solo River, Java; 1881 • Tranil 2 Skull Cap (second hominin bone found in Tranil) o Archiaic Morphology; 940 cc; 20 MYA o Big size of the super orbital torus. (Where eyebrows are) • Tranil Femur o Bipedal o (Myositis ossificans traumatica) - individual survived a crushing bone on back of femur. • New species: Pithecanthropus erectus ("upright ape-man") Now: Homo erectus Zhoukoutien, China 1920s - "Dragon Bone Hill" • 40 individuals • Sinanthropus pekinensis (But we now know that these are Homo erectus) • All lost in WWII • ~ 500 KYA • ECV 1000 cc • Stone tools o OldWan o Most H. erectus never associated with anything other than Oldowan tools o 2.5 MYA - 500 KYA • A long period of stasis! At least, intellectually… more like us instead of austrilopiths but slow • More Homo erectus from Java: o Sangirian 17 o Latest dates: 1.75 MYA - 27 KYA (thousand) (! o SO: H. erectus arrives in E. Asia EARLY *** o Homo erectus probably • Regionally specialized evolutionary dead end • Originally derived from an African ancestor like H. ergaster Dmanisi, Georgia ~ 1.75 MYA • Homo ergaster • 1.75 MYA • ECV ~600 cc -~800 cc • Postcrania o Long legs o Essentially modern limb proportion • Evidence for butchering with stone tools • Earliest evidence for care of incapacitated individuals? The Upshot: • A postcranium fully committed to efficient bipedalism evolves late in human evolution (by about 1.8 MYA) • As soon as that happened, Homo walks right out of Africa and across the Old World… Following migration, more regional specialization. Liang Bua, Flores • Peter Brown and Mike Morwood o University of New England, Australia o Previously found stone tools o Why were tools controversial? • Starting 1.8 MYA - Ice Ages (Glacial period) • During Glacial Periods, Sea Level Drops o So, most people thought Brown and Morwood's dates were wrong … New Discovery in 2004: about 8 or 9 cranial fossils. • New species: Homo floresiensis  Archaic erectus-like cranium  Fully bipedal erectus-like postcranium  Only 17,000 years old
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