Consumers Use of ADV and PR
Thursday, October 10, 2013
Consumers: One-on One
•Understand how advertising/pr fits into the consumer decision-making process
•Describe how consumers process and respond to advertising/pr
•Explain how advertisers/pr do consumer research to identify the major methods
•Mary Wells quoted for observing consumers as skeptical
Consumer decision making process
•Brand advertising/PR: create a "liking" or preference to use at some point in the future.
•Direct-response advertising: tries to gain some immediate response.
•Marketer's own experience: about how they understood consumers' behavior in market
•Theoretical Models: Psychology of adv. Theoretical models of how consumers pay, what
•Communication theories: combined psychological theories with communication.
•Explanation of behavior
Prediction of behavior
•Attribution modeling: web has generated organizations (Google) who can track a
•Even simple buying decisions are complicated
• Do you buy the same brand of toothpaste every time?
• Do you buy the cheapest or most expensive brand?
• How about those red, green and white stripes?
• What about the ads?
• Did you use a coupon?
• The one your mother uses?
High vs. Low Involvement
What's for dinner? : Low involvement
•College choice? : High involvement
Model of the consumer decision Process
•Decision process: a series related stages lead to action
•Help with understanding why?
o Problem Recognition: when did you notice the problem? How long from results?
o Search: Internal and External: what are your options? What's important? What
details are you looking at?
o Alternative Evaluation
• Consideration set: what will you consider? What are your choices?
Evaluative criteria: what's important to you? Price, quality o Choice: What you decide?
o Outcomes: what happened?
• Culture and Subculture
• Mainstream culture: collective values and beliefs of society
• Subcultures: subgroups within a larger culture that keep distinctive
lifestyles/values while adopting important features of the dominant culture.
• Going from culture to subculture
• Social Rank/Class: society's tendency to rank its members according to
Top professions: Doctors, Scientists, Teachers, Clergy, Military
Least professions: Accountants, bankers, union leaders, journalist
Determinants of social class
o Interpersonal Influence
Most important decisions are made in consolation w/family
Family important emotional influence
• Peer groups: friends
Look to peer groups for reactions to socially visible products like
clothes, car, watches, phones
• Opinion Leaders
Have a deeper knowledge for products than "normal"
Considered experts in specific product categories
Two-step flow theory: Advertisers would only target opinion
leaders. Then opinion leaders would transfer that info to the rest of the
population within their social reach.
o Individual Influences
• Demographics: descriptive characteristics that help divide a "mass"
market into smaller groups… age, gender, income, ethnicity
Gender makes a difference
• Psychological Influences
Perception, learning/memory, attitude, motivation
Perception is reality
Perception: how consumers sense and interpret the world around
them. Different consumers perceive same product and ads differently.
• Physiological traits
• Interpretations of band image
• Can't pay attention to everything • Risk: "so what if I don't get it"
• PERCEPTION IS TRUTH!!
• James Vicary: subliminal projection. "EAT POPCORN …
• Vance Packard: Hidden Persuaders (book)
• Wilson Brian Key**: Subliminal seduction (book)
• Memory and Learning
Memory : Retention of information over time
Learning: acquiring new behaviors
Marketers influence consumers by:
Reinforcing brand habits via learning
• About their brands
• Form pattern of brand loyalty… predisposition to
prefer/buy one brand consistently over all the rest.
Increasing retention of messages
1. Reinforcing buying behavior
Inclination to evaluate a product, person or idea in a certain way
Once formed attitudes are resistant to change
Three Components to Attitude (cats are awful)
1. Cognitive (thinking)