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BIO 301M Lecture Notes

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University of Texas at Austin
BIO 301M

Please do consider adding some notes if you take some :D 11-19-13 Notes Fungi 1. Main Characteristics 1. Eukaryotic 2. Multicellular 3. Cell walls 4. Heterotrophic 2. Anatomy 1. Some are single celled like yeast 2. Clusters of multicellular filaments 1. Hyphae - the single filament 2. Mycelium - cluster of all the filaments 3. Septa - the individual threads of hyphae, theyre tiny 3. A few are coenocytic, which means they do not have the septa 4. Some have haustoria, which are hyphae that burrow into cells so they can access the cytoplasm 3. Life Cycles 1. Mostly haploid (one set of chromosomes per cell) 2. When they want to reproduce sexually, they have to go through this series of steps: 1. Plasmogamy: two mycelia meet and fuse together, but the nuclei do not. The result is an organism with two nuclei, which means it is dikaryotic or heterokaryotic 2. The blue color in the following diagram is the haploid stage 3. Karyogamy: Zygote 4. Meiosis: Spores 4. Fungi Evolution 1. Fungi evolved from aquatic protists 2. Split with Animalia one billion years ago 3. Oldest clear fossils are 460 million years ago 4. Following plants onto land, forming mutualistic relationships with them 5. Groups 1. Chytrids 1. Most basal fungi 2. Really small, the very first group to evolve 3. Cause of amphibian decline 2. Zygomycetes 1. Very diverse 2. Coenocytic hyphae 3. Asexual sporangia 4. They produce the spores 5. Example: black bread mold 3. Ascomycetes 1. Sac fungi 2. Produce sexual spores in sacs called asci on the fruiting body, the ascocarp 3. Examples: Morels and truffles 4. Basidiomycetes 1. Club fungi: mushrooms, shelf fungi, and puffballs 2. Long lived dikaryotic mycelium 3. Environmental triggers stimulate it to produce the basidiocarp with diploid basidia 6. Mutualism 1. Mycorrhizae - fungi living within the plant, they help the plant get nutrients like phosphorus. It can produce toxins that deter herbivores or pathogens 2. Animal Mutualism - live within the digestive system of grazing mammals and helps break down plant matter 3. Leaf cutter ants produce fungus 7. Lichen 1. Mutualism between fungus and a photosynthetic microrganism 1. Green algae or cyanobacteria 2. So reliant on one another that lichens are given latin names 3. Reproduce when small pieces break off 4. Turn rock into soil 8. Amphibian Decline 1. Worldwide collapse of amphibians is underway 2. Multiple causes - one of the most serious is the spread of a species of chytrid fungus 11-21-13 notes Mutualisms With plants -mycorrhizae • Fungi living within the plant • Help the plant acquire nutrients like phosphorus • Can produce toxins that deter herbivores or pathogens • Make animals not want the plant With animals -live within digestive system of grazing mammals • Help break down plant matter -are farmed by leaf-cutter ants • Pile it up and seam with fungus • Fungus food for ants • Codependent Lichens Mutualism between fungus and a photosynthetic microorganism -green algae or Cyanobacteria • So reliant on one another that lichens are given Latin names • Reproduce when small pieces break off • Turn rock into soil • Very sensitive to pollutants Amphibians decline • A worldwide collapse or amphibians is underway • Multiple causes • One of the most serious is the spread of a Species of chytrid fungus Animalia • Eukaryotic • Multicellular • Heterotrophic • No cell wall • Collagen • Almost a million and a half species • Most reproduce sexually • Zygote forms the blastula a hollow ball of cells • The main organization of tissues occurs during a process called gastrulation Origins of animals - Split with fungi almost 1 billion years ago - Most closely related to chanoflagellates o Structurally similar to choanocytes o Similar cells are found only in animals o Molecular data lumps them with animals o Species live colonially o Solitary species can evolve coloniality in a few hundred generations Evolution - Species before 550 million years ago were soft bodied and fossilized poorly o Ediac
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