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Lecture 36

BIO 311D Lecture 36: Adaptive Radiation (Human Evolution), Apr 26

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BIO 311D
Levin Donald

BIO 311D, Dr. Donald Levin, Lecture #36, 26 April 2017 (All images are taken from Dr. Levin’s lecture slides, which are available on his website Adaptive Radiation • Probable initial sites of plant and animal development o New World – maize, potato, tomato, tobacco, etc. o Old World – rye, oats, rice, citrus, etc. o Different species because different wild ancestors were suited to different regions o Species spread to other places over time • Percentage difference in DNA nucleotide sequences o Humans and chimps – 1.2% ▪ Meaning a 98.8% similarity o Humans and lemurs – 42.0% o Differences accumulate over time o Time since common ancestor correlates to percentage of difference DNA nucleotides • Amino acid sequences for several primate species o Humans and chimps – identical for this hemoglobin chain o Humans and gorillas – one amino acid difference o Humans and gibbons – 2 different amino acids o More closely related species have fewer genetic differences • Some proteins that can be used to compare similarities between speices: o Hemoglobin o Cytochrome C o Beta-globin o Alpha-globin • Humans and sheep have very different amino acid compositions • Just a lot of genetic evidence that we’re genetically similar to chimps • From high to low similarities to humans… o Mammals  reptiles  insects  plants  etc • Divergence in a clock-like way o The longer t
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