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BIO 325 September 2nd Lecture Notes

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BIO 325
Sanghamitra Mohanty

9/2 Lecture Friday, September 06, 2013 5:47 PM Genetics - study of heredity • Fundamental to who we are and what we do CHROMOSOME THEORY OF INHERITANCE: Inherited traits --- controlled by genes residing on chromosomes ---- transmitted through gametes --- maintains genetic continuity from generation to generation Mitosis - chromosomes are copied and distributed so that the 2 resulting daughter cells each receive a diploid (2n) set Meiosis - gametes produced are haploid (n); 4 daughter cells Mutations - produce alleles of a gene and are the SOURCE of genetic variation DNA - antiparallel, double-stranded helix made up of the nucleotides A, C, G, and T • The sugar in its nucleotides is deoxyribose • A-T and G-C complementary bases RNA - single-stranded, and has U in place of T with its sugar being ribose GENE EXPRESSION ------ DNA --> RNA ---> PROTEIN [the central dogma of genetics] Genetic code = triplet nucleotides present in mRNA • Each triplet encodes for insertion of a specific AA
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