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BIO 325 September 9th Lecture Notes

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University of Texas at Austin
BIO 325
Sanghamitra Mohanty

9/9 Lecture Friday, September 06, 2013 8:21 PM Mendelian genetics = transmission genetics He was 1822 in a poor family, but has a passion for science --- went to Vienna to study --- became a teacher ---- became a monk (spent a lot of time in monastery garden --- then saw the pea plants and started his experiments His experiment became the model experimental design because of his choice of subject Garden pea = MODEL SYSTEM  Easy and fast to grow o Produce many offsprings o One generation was completed in a month o This leads to big sample size and good ratios  True-breeding strains o Several variety of pea plants  Controlled matings o Self-fertilization or cross-fertilization  Grows to maturity in one season  Has observable characteristics with 2 distinct forms o Only chose very clear features with no range of expressions -- easily distinguished o He setted up a hypothesis [did experiments for 10 years] -- wanted to make sure he had the facts before he published his work Mendel used SEVEN visible features, each with two contrasting traits and true-breeding strains [If the offspring resembles the parents than those plants are genetically pure or homozygous for that gene]  Seed shape  Seed color  Pod shape  Pod color  Flower color  Flower position  Stem height Monohybrid cross - involve a single pair of contrasting traits  P1generation - original parents (mother and father)  F1generation - offsprings arise [ONLY SHOWS DOMINANT CHARACTERISTICS]  F2generation - offspring from selfing His observation of monohybrid cross: P1 Green x yellow F1 All green F2 Green 3/4 and yellow 1/4 Conclusions made:  In F1 only one of the two contrasting traits came up  3:1 ratio in F2 generation Mendel's monohybrid crosses were NOT SEX DEPENDENT!  It didn't matter whether a tall male plant pollinated a dwarf female plant  Reciprocal crosses "particulate unit factors" - these factors (now called genes) are passed unchanged from generation to generation, determining various traits expressed by each individual plant  Genes exist in pair 
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