C C 303 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Signify, Kishar, Lightning

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1/27/17 In the Beginning…
Zeus and Marduk
Subject
Hesiod’s Theogony
Enuma Elish
Means of Birth
Son of Cronos and
Rhea
Son of Ea and Damkina
Rise to Power
Overthrew Cronos
Defeated many;
Typhon, the Titans,
the Giants
Defeated Tiamat
politically/orderly handing down of
power from the older generation to
new
Dominion and Character
God of the sky and
King of the Gods
Father of Gods and
men
God and patron of Babylon
Rise to become chief God
Enemies
Typhon, Ares, Pluto,
Typpolta, Cronus,
Titans, Typhoeus,
Otus, Ephialles, and
the giants
Tiamat
Qingu
Allies
Poseidon, Hades,
Hestia, Demeter, and
Hera.
Anu (granddad)
Ea(dad)
Family
The olympians
Sexual unions created
more Gods
Family: younger generation
Ea told him to fight an older God,
received authority from him and
did not act on his own, had to be
approved
Fate
Outwitted fate, ate
Metis and remained in
power
Obtained the Tablet of Divinities
Creation in Hesiod’s Theogony and Enuma Elish
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Subject
Hesiod’s Theogony
Enuma Elish
Creator(s)
Gaia (earth) and
Ouranos (sky) made
the other Gods
the mingling of the fresh (Apsu)
and saltwater (Tiamat) is the first
act of creation: other gods are
born within them
Origin of Matter
Chaos (void)
Matter is eternal
Origin of Deities
Gods are born from
them
other gods are born from them
Primeval Conditions
Chaos
Watery chaos
Day and night already exist before
Anu's revolt against this children.
Extent of discussion of creation in the
text
Very brief; in the First
Gods explanation
Most of the work is
the Rise of Zeus
Creation covers less than two of
seven tablets, (Most of the work
deals with the contest between
Marduk and Tiamat
Creation of the firmament(sky)
Ouranos, born from
Gaia
Three types of water:
Apsu-sweet water
Tiamat-salt water
Mummu-fog
Ea kills Apsu and builds his home
on sweet waters.
Ea captures Mummu, and after
defeating Tiamat, he divides the
waters: half earth, half sky.
Creation of the earth
Gaia
After establishing half of Tiamat's
body as sky, Marduk uses the
other half as earth.
Creation of celestial bodies
Babylonian description is in
astronomical terms.
Marduk creates celestial bodies
and the means of marking time
(zodiac, designation of year,
months, days, moon, sun).
Creation of vegetation
From Gaia (?)
Not in. Enuma Elish but in some
sources may be on "'one of the
missing sections. Tablet Vii, refers
to Marduk as "The creator of
grains and legume”
Creation of sea and land
Gaia is land
Pontus, from Gaia, is
Not in the Babylonian sources.
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