CSD 306K Lecture Notes - Lecture 75: Bound And Unbound Morphemes, Literal And Figurative Language, Assertiveness

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Key Questions:
What are the major milestones and processes in communication?
What is the definition of language?
What are the processes and systems that underlie speech and language development?
What are the four major periods of language and speech development?
Language vs Speech
Kelly's 4-year-old son, Tommy, has speech and language problems. Friends and family have a hard
time understanding what he is saying. He speaks softly, and his sounds are not clear.
o Speech Disorder and could be accompanied by language disorders as well
Jane had a stroke. She can only speak in one-to two-word sentences and cannot explain what she
needs and wants. She also has trouble following simple directions.
o Exclusive language problem
Speech is the verbal means of communicating. Speech disorders usually result in disruption of:
Articulation- How speech sounds are made (e.g., children must learn how to produce the "r" sound in
order to say "rabbit" instead of "wabbit")
o Because of cultural nors, it ould e stigatizig to say "" istead of "r". It does’t ea
it is right but people will think speech sounds are the same as cognitive incompetence.
o As a child there is developmental milestones in speech production.
o Articulation disorders can linger into adulthood.
Voice: Use of the vocal folds and breathing to produce sound (e.g., the voice can be abused from
overuse or misuse and can lead to hoarseness or loss of voice).
o Problems related to the vocal folds themselves
o Overtightening of vocal folds that lean to strain of the voice
o Can also lead to respiratory issues, does not include asthma
Getting people to use and coordinate their respiratory muscles appropriately
Fluency: The rhythm of speech (e.g., hesitations or stuttering can affect fluency).
o Stuttering
Adding extra syllables into words
o Cluttering (opposite of stuttering)
Speaks at a rapid pace because they are dropping syllables
Speech Disorder: When a person is unable to produce speech sounds correctly or fluently, or has
problems with his or her voice, then he or she has a speech disorder
o Does’t hae aythig to do ith ogitio
o Speech disorder can coexist with cognition disorders
o But a speech disorder does not mean that the person has an indication of a cognition
Language: is made up of socially shared rules that include the following:
What words mean (content)
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