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United States (325,774)
History (301)
HIS 315K (112)
Lecture

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Department
History
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HIS 315K
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Kathleen Barr

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The Collision of Cultures 1/16/13 Europe, Africa, and the Americas (Before Contact) The philosophy of history (reading history vs. doing/engaging with history) Textbook example: if Texas is able to require specific textbooks, there are already a lot of students in Texas, so ALL textbooks in the U.S. were re-written Question of evolution: should we include the theory/teaching of evolution be included in history textbooks? Should it balanced with something else – creationism? Equal space? What about the question of slavery and civil rights? Is Texas Board of Education wrong? History should be taught in a non-biased factual way… Zinn and Johnson is taught from 2 different perspectives (somewhat more of an agenda) But can think events/people are more significant (but people do not have an intentional agenda) Generational gap between authors and teachers Foner does not include every primary document (probably trying to get wide range but unintentionally including some and not including others) NOTES: 1/16/13 The Earliest Americans (The New World – to Europeans, not Americans – western hemisphere) ^Why is it included in textbooks? Written by wealthy, white, Europeans, “victors” Beringia  First migrations probably began about 20,000 to 30,000 years during the Ice Age  Crossed a land bridge – Beringia o Came for food, bison, wooly mammoth (big game animals) o Ice age ended about 10,000 years ago (waters rise, cutting off those in the Western hemisphere from the rest of the world – lived in isolation)  Did the isolation prevent cultural political, economic, development? Did it hinder it from developing in the same way that Europeans developed? o Savages, conservative with resources, primitive, naïve (narrative of New World) – comes from original documents/diaries from preacher, minster types and explorers o Nomadic with the seasons (slash and burn)  good for environment or conservative? They’re kind to environment? That might not be true  Americans filter down and encounter different geographic regions so they developed differently – diversity Diversity throughout the Americas  By 1492, over 50 million people in the Western hemisphere (70 million people in Europe) o 4-10 million north of the Rio Grande o 25 million in Mexico and Peru  Between 6 and 8 hundred languages  Pivotal: development of agriculture o Allows people to become sedentary, settle down o As these societies develop, easier to acquire stuff, so development of political & economic status occurs  More stuff – brings you higher in the system (leaders) Mississippian Culture  Centered in central Mississippi valley (Indian culture)  Arose around 600 CE (AD)  Lasted until 1500 CD  Unique aspect: Mound-builders (Native American) o Homes, protection, storage, burial grounds, religious ceremonies o Europeans thought they didn’t have religion WRONG  Cahokia, IL & East Texas both have mounds (can be 6 miles long) Pueblo Culture - the Anasazi  Developed in Chaco Canyon area  Arose around 400 BCE  Still in existence today The Iroquois (developed semi-sedentary society, pretty strong political organization, but developed more after contact with Europeans)  Right top part of the United States  Developed large-scale agriculture societies based on.. o Maize o Beans  By about 1400, the five Iroquois nations (Confederation) emerged as a distinct linguistic group o Mohawk o Oneida o Onondaga o Cayuga o Seneca  Pushed out the Algonquin in the Mississippi valley (pretty powerful) The Aztecs  Arose around 1200 CD  Capital at Tenochtitlan  Empire fell in 1519 CE (population 300,000 people – one of the largest concentrations of people in the world) **TEST QUESTION  Subjugated well over 5 million people o Paid agricultural tribute; paid tribute also by serving as sacrifice to the Aztec sun god Huitzilopochtli (war captives particularly) who required human hearts  Sun god is represented by a hummingbird  Entertainment? Controlled the population – keep everyone in line? Sheer curiosity? By allowing the public to watch the sacrifices  Sends a message to the people  Stretches from north central Mexico to Mayan peninsula (Yucatan)  Undertook major building projects – pyramids to the sun and mood god (still in existence)  Also built extensive irrigation systems, bridges because Tenochtitlan is in the middle of a marshy lake (had to connect with rest of empire) (engineered)  While they’re described as primitive/savages – obviously weren’t backward The Incas (in South America)  Arose around 1200 CE in the Andes highlands  Capital at Cuzco  Empire fell in 1535 CE with coming of Europeans  Subjugated millions of people to provide labor  Undertook major infrastructure – built roads (transportation is essential)  for troops to get out and resources to come in o Irrigation systems  Machu Pichu  Primitive – absolutely incorrect  GOLD and silver  slaves go dig out these from mines **Compare/contrast development (social, political) north and south of Rio Grande North – semi-nomadic, no great empires South – Aztecs, Incas; more water (next to Yucatan peninsula and other sources) more fish, nuts, berries; topography, geography, climate (Machu Pichu – can’t move as much in the Andes mountains) allowed for development of empires African Kingdoms  Slaves from West African kingdoms o Songhai empire (1450 – 1591) prior to contact with Europeans o Capital at Timbuktu  Extensive trade network even before the Europeans came o Gold in the region (put on camel caravans, sent up north crossing Sahara and would end up in Cairo) o Traded gold for salt to Middle East etc. (knew how to trade) Europe’s Internal Transformation The Crusades  Brought about a large-scale exchange of ideas, technologies, and trade goods  Between 1200 and 1500 changing what’s going on  One of the first developments was the Crusades  Europe in the Dark Ages 800-1200 AD o Not a lot of learning or exploration; so intellectual darkness  Muslim expansion; in the 600s religion was founded in Saudia Arabia and spread around the world o Islam traveled to Catholic Spain, then goes to France – then the pope (pushes moors out of France) o Meanwhile the moors have taken control of Jerusalem o The pope said “who is willing to fight for God?” – crusaders to take back Jerusalem form the Muslims o When get to Middle East – come in contact with Arabs/Indians (India) who had trading connections with China o Brought home silk, spices, technology back home o Merchants traveled with Crusaders and came in contact with Arabia/Chinese goods o 500% markup – from china to middle east to Europe (directly from India)  Disease also comes from China (the plague) Bubonic Plague  By 1360’s, 50% of the Europe population had died  Halt on trade for a bit  Rebirth in Europe after the plague (Renaissance) o Originally centered in Italy The Renaissance REBIRTH  Merchant-monarch connection set the stage for the Renaissance in Europe  Italians are ones bringing stuff back and making huge profits  Brings so much learning, goods, technology into Europe  Came out of the Dark Ages Merchant-Monarch Connection  Crusades and increasing power of monarchs created a connection between monarchs and merchants o Merchants used royal navies to protect commerce o Crown gave some merchants monopolies/charters (you have the right to sail to the spice islands and bring back pepper or cinnamon) o Crown received part of the commercial profits when merchants returned from East o Where did power in Europe lie? Church o Monarch could consolidate power  Regional lords had personal armies o Merchants bring back profits, some go to monarch (take power from lords) o 1350-1400 consolidation of power in Europe Consolidation of Power  Portugal – John I  France – Louis XI  England – Henry VII  Spain – Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile 1469  Still fighting to get the moors out of Spain and by 1492 successful from removing them from Spain Portuguese Exploration  Made possible by o Strategic location o Prince Henry “the Navigator” o new sailing and shipbuilding techniques (created a school) o learned how to travel to Africa (because can’t go straight there due to the strong currents and winds)  when they begin to sail down the African coast, they became interested in African slaves  raised sugar for them in the colonies  people that find colonies do not want to be the “colonizer” – don’t want to build up the villages on their own (they have interest in the home country)  Eventually went from Africa, on to India  Objective: to reach India/the east (cut out middle man) to get the goods directly from those places back to Europe  Why Spain and not other countries? Why did they discover the “New World”? Why would Spain prior to 1492 not be in position to go discover the new world? The moors (Muslims) were still in Spain – busy fighting the Reconquista (1492) Didn’t think of themselves as Spaniards By 1492, now the king and queen had the resources Power, glory for the Spanish (God, Glory, Gold) Christopher Columbus sailed east to India but didn’t know there was a huge land mass in between – discovers AMuRiCa (not very true) he discovered islands (never made it to India) goes to death claiming he reached Indies (to save himself) The Columbian Exchange ***memorize for Test A profound transfer of goods, food, ideas, social organization, and disease that eradicated centuries of separation between the hemispheres and started the process of regular communication among many different cultures ^^isolation between the two places had ended Columbian Exchange Transfer (know enough to talk with “for example”) From New World to Old  Maize  Potatoes – staple crop now in so many countries  Tomatoes  Cacao - chocolate  Tobacco  Peanuts  Cassava  Turkey  Syphilis From Old World to New  Cereals  Sugar  Livestock  Honey bees  Orchard trees  Coffee  Disease (Flu – instant death basically, smallpox, measles) Zinn – in terms of progress (if you look at history as a line of progression), have to look at the other side and see that it decimated other populations (not everyone loved the Columbian Exchange) but populations under the thumb of others (helped start the institution of slavery in the New World) Johnson – believed that the benefits so far outweighed the negatives (in terms of commerce and capitalism) and what it did for America Making one group inferior allows Europeans to be in a superior position and take gold (to use the people/slaves in any way that they chose) Bartolomu de las Casas – traveled around islands and stated the mistreatment of slaves Purpose: to spread Christianity – Casas argued that these people have souls and they can’t be treated in that way (we don’t want to wipe out our converts) – debate in Spain ^debate gave rise to Black Legend  incredibly cruel nation – killing people who don’t obey Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)  Drew an imaginary line from north to south about 1100 miles west of the Cape Verde Islands  All of the unclaimed territory to the west would go to the Spaniards  To the east, it would go to the Portuguese  The idea of “unclaimed territory” – not truly unclaimed (just as the pope and Spaniards and Portuguese are concerned) The Founding of the Colonies  British, French, and Dutch  Queen Elizabeth 1 o Rivalries with foreign powers, combined with support for the Reformation, provided the spark for England’s initial efforts at exploring the Western Hemisphere  Economic Rivalries with Foreign Powers o The expansion of maritime trade in early modern Europe created economic rivalries among European powers  The Dutch played a dominant role in new designs for merchant ships  The heavily armed “east Indiaman” helped the Dutch establish their supremacy in the Indian Ocean  Dutch became real economic rival for Europeans, particularly with the English (used the designs that Portuguese and Italians brought back)  “IF WE DON’T GET OUT THEIR COLONIZE WE WILL BE LEFT BEHIND” The Reformation  In 1517, a young professor of sacred scripture, Martin Luther, nailed his 95 These to the door of the Catholic Church in Wittenberg, Germany  Symbiotic relationship that worked to keep the monarchs and catholic church in power  Important to note: catholic church was a hierarchy (pope was at the top, underneath were cardinals, underneath were arch-bishops, then bishops, then eventually the perish clergy) –  Martin Luther wasn’t necessarily “on the take” – taking money from poor people to give to the church; but there was corruption at the higher level  Sale of Indulgences  get out purgatory free card, but only way to get them was to buy them o Relics – finger of St. Peter’s; piece of cloth that Christ wore to the Last Supper (not really) but people bought them and money went to the Catholic Church (way to get into heaven)  Martin Luther rejected these indulgences (mainly relics because false) o Not right (wealthy people had opportunities that poor people did not – poor people could not get into heaven); not biblical  Poor People got into heaven by FAITH – read bible, do right thing, morals  CENTRALITY OF CATHOLIC CHURCH  Martin Luther didn’t think everyone should break away from the church but he wanted to reform it  Protestant Reformation o Don’t want to just reform, we want to BREAK AWAY o Germans break away – Lutheran o Dutch break away The Reformation in England  In 1533, the pope denied King Henry VIII’s petition for an annulment of his marriage to Katherine of Aragon (because he could not produce a male heir) o Power struggle between Henry VIII and pope o In 1534, the English Parliament made/encouraged the English monarch head of the Church of England  Anglican Church  Started by Henry VIII  Intense warfare/religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics Roanoke Island  In 1585, Walter Raleigh, with a royal charter (monopoly) form the Queen to take colonists over to the New World (has protection from the Queen), attempted to establish a colony at Roanoke Island (today in the Carolinas) o Raleigh and Captain John White returned to England in 1587 o 1588, War with Spain – Spanish Armada sail to England (prevents Walter to returning to Roanoke) o There were unable to return until 1590  When they returned no settlers were found  Theory 1: Colonists killed by Native Americans?  Native Americans are savages – of course that’s what happened!!  Theory 2: Joined the Native Americans?  Evidence that genealogical that the settlers were taken in by Native Americans and moved close to mainland  Makes them seem human…Ha doesn’t fit with the “story”  But… also Native Americans a little hostile; Genetically (phenotypes) was not a big part of history evidence Use Foner for Exams!! Theme for 1 chapter: Contact between Europeans and Native Americans  Mistreatment of Native Americans o Evidence: De las Casas SPECIFICALLY bad religion? Devil masks o Egalitarianism – men and women are equal (Queen was masculine in England-not really a “woman”)  Property was matrilineal  Women were able to sit in council  Good people: o Evidence: strong marriages, didn’t have a lot of possessions but still happy; hospitality – generous  Hurons, Iroquois nd Theme for 2 chapter: Religion One way ticket for most ticket – so there had to be some great motivation (Economic competition and rivalries, reformation – people wanted to be Protestant, not Catholic) Gold, God, Glory for Spaniards Black Legend – good superior; treat Indians well; convert but in a kinder way Jamestown  In 1607, the London group of the Virginia Company (joint-stock company) founded a colony at Jamestown o Joint stock company  Advantages: pull their money together and were able to finance these voyages; can buy bigger and more things than can by themselves  Sam’s Club: buy in bulk  Rewards are not as great; but the probability of loses is not as great either o Over the next 3 years, 4/5 of the colonizers died from starvation and disease  Too busy looking for silver and gold  Wealthy people in England don’t travel to colonies (don’t need to)  More middle class, poor people go so they can make a name  Wealthy(ish) people/nobility don’t know how to farm, plant crops (that’s for servants to do)  Were helped by nearby Indians who tried to help (repaid the natives by enslaving them, killing them, giving diseases, pushed off land)  Purpose: Company wanted gold (saw the Spaniards doing this as they traveled around the world)  Baron de la Ware arrived in colony with 150 more men (reinforcements) in June 1610 Sir Thomas Gates (1611)  Lawes Divine, Morall, and Martiall o Established a strict legal code for the colonists  Everyone pulls their weight  Dealt with increasing tensions between settlers and Indians o Will not steal from Indians; if Indians give you something, pay it back o Attempted to deal with tensions  England transplanted to the New World with a legal code John Rolfe 1612  Introduced “Oronoco,” a variety of West Indian tobacco into English markets o Caused resentment among Indians as their land was increasingly taken over for planting o James I hated idea of smoking, dipping; stinks, but profitable/economic necessity for Virginia company o But also land was taken over for cropping o European idea of land: ownership and right to enclose it “Enclosure,” very different than Indian’s idea of property’ “Headright” Policy  in 1618, the company instituted the “Headright” policy o anyone who bought a share of the company and who could transport himself to Virginia was given 50 acres of free land o he was given 50 acres more for bringing servants*  Important to note: (1) way to encourage folks with enough money to
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