IRG 320F Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Solomon Judah Loeb Rapoport, Human Security, Social Facilitation

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IRG 320 Mar 8th:
Violence and Warfare
When will political protests occur?
oNot because of lack of prerequisites of democratization (Bellin pg. 128)
Asking why we see these protests occur around the Middle East/Arab
Not these prereqs, or that the Middle East is missing them, but that there
is an organization to the military that encourages loyalty against the
oLevel of institutionalization of military
Institutionalized military defects (Bellin)
Not willing to hurt protestors, but want to defect from the dictatorship
oLevel of mobilization
When will people be willing to take the streets?
Emotional trigger, sense of impunity and social media mobilize protests
Social media offers anonymity, better ways to communicate,
helps build a network of supporters that can go global
Downfall includes censorship, repression, and free riders
Arab Spring, 2011
oRemoval of dictatorships
Mubarak in Tunisia
Ben Ali in Tunisia
Gaddafi in Libya
Ali Abdullah Saleh in Yemen
oProtests also in:
Bahrain, Syria, Morocco, Jordan
Use of Media
oPreparation phase
oIgnition phase
oProtest phase
oInternational buy-in phase
oClimax phase
oFollow-on phase
Source: Hussain and Howard, 2013
oNew wars must be understood in the context of the process know as
oNew vs. old wars
Old wars generated the state, new wars occur when states fall
oSolution: human rights, international law, cosmopolitan consent,
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