IRG 320F Lecture Notes - Lecture 18: Maastricht Treaty, Good Moral Character, Single European Act

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IRG 320 Apr 21st:
Immigration: Part II
Human capital, knowledge transfer
Remittances (432 Billion, 2015)
Positive image of home
Cultural exchange
Skills and knowledge
Revenue (Dream Act, 2.3 billion)
oSuccessful with language proficiency and education
oFailures because of host:
Labor market racism
Restrictive hiring rules
Restriction of borrowing
Refusal to recognize foreign credentials
oSocial unrest
oViolence against minorities
oRise of right-wing, national groups and parties
National Front, France
UKIP, right-wing populist party
History of US immigration
oBeginning in the 1500s, earliest migrants
By choice from Spain, France, UK
Religious freedoms or economic opportunities
By force from West Africa
o1790 Naturalization Act
2 years of residency
“Good moral character”
“Free white person”
Repealed in 1870
oBy mid 1800s, migrants arrived to US from
China, Burlingame Treaty
o1864: Immigration Act (Act to encourage immigration
o1870: Naturalization Act
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Eligibility to people of African descent
oBacklash begins, Chinese weren’t eligible to be naturalized after 1870
o1882: Chinese Exclusion Act
Repealed in 1943
o1917L Immigration Act (Asiatic Barres Zone Act)
Literacy test required
o1921: Emergency Quota Act
o1924: Immigration Act (National Origins Quato Act or Johnson-Reed Act)
o1943: Bracero Agreement
o1952: Refugee Relief Act
o1962: Migration and Refugee Assistance Act
o1965: Immigration and Nationality Act (Hart-Celler Act)
Ended nationality-based quotas
o1980: Refugee Act
more visas for refugees
o1986: immigration reform and control act
pathway to residency for unauthorized immigrants
o1990: Immigration act
700,000 immigrants
four categories: reunification, work, refugees and diversity
o2012: Deferred Action of Childhood Arrivals (DACA)
o2014: Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents
Undocumented immigration
o11.3 million undocumented immigrants
o3.5% of US population, 6.4% of US labor force
ohave been in the US 13 years (on average)
o56% of US surveyed agree they should stay
oDeportation cost: 11.3 million
oTexas Dream Act, 2001
Documented immigrants
o650,000 permanent immigrants granted
family reunification: 480,000
work skills: 140,000
oForemost among migration is the fact that women pioneered migration in the
60s and 70s when DC still lacked a substantial Latin American community and an
international labor force (Repak, 2)
Competing explanations
oPush/pull factors (Conventional wisdom)
Current political/economic conditions
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oHistorical-structural framework (Repak)
Capitalism, historical connections
oLabor recruitment theory (Repak)
Demand and supply of labor
oHuman capital theory (NO!)
Individual characteristics
oGender (Repak)
Historical-structural theory
oInternational economic system
Interdependence among nation states (8)
Search for low-cost labor
Women preferred in export manufacturing plants
oDemand for domestic-service in WDC
oHistorical connections
oRepak adds: gendered labor recruitment and social network (10)
oOne of the major implications of these findings is that LA migrations should
hardly be viewed as a homogenous phenomenon (6)
oGender based migration evolve with socioeconomic circumstances in both
sending and receiving countries
oI shall argue, a mistake to eliminate the state from our analysis (402)
oFunctions of the state
Westphalian state: power and security (Waltz)
Trading state: economic integration (Rosecrance)
Migration state (Hollifield)
International Arrangements FIX
o1951: Geneva Convention
principle of asylum
entitled to legal hearing
non-refoulement: state cannot send an individual bac
oNational guest worker programs
EU Agreements
oSingle European Act of 1986
Eliminate all barriers
oMaastricht Treaty 1993
European citizenship
oSchengen Agreement 1985/1990
Abolition of internal border controls
Common external border controls
Common visa policy
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