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Lecture

[COMPLETE] Development Notes 4.0 GPA Student

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Psychology
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PSY 301
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All

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02/21/2014 Notes Key: Black Ink = PowerPoint lecture Blue Ink = class lecture on that particular slide or topic that was not on the slide. Red Ink = Examples related to that particular topic Green Ink = Definitions and important terms Development Psychology: the study of continuity and change across the life span on different dimensions. (Broad approach to development) Child Psychology looks at the children along every dimension at different ages. Early Development approach looking at a child From Birth  adulthood OR Birth  Death Rather than understanding you look at the process involved in the development of the child overtime. Major Issues: 1. Nature/nurture: How do genetics inheritance (nature) and experience (nurture) influences our behavior? What comes from environment and from heredity? 2. Continuity/Stages: is development of a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages? There’s a smooth process or whether it’s different by parts? Physical growth in childhood till they hit puberty 3. Stability/Changes: Do early personality traits remain stable or changes through life? Refers to personality. What remains the same and what changes? How does it stay same? Children development along multiple dimensions: 1) Motor: Control of body 2) Social: Interpersonal Communication/ Social 3) Cognitive: Thinking 4) Linguistic: Development of Language ** IN THIS CLASS WE’RE MAINLY FOCUSED ON SOCIALAND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT** Principles of Underlying all areas: 1) Development is growth: Child isn’t only changing they’re growing. They are getting better at understanding and decoding the sounds they hear and understanding the sounds. They’re becoming more 2) Interaction of heredity and environment 3) Orderly Progression: of Motor development Most form of development that’s there. The process unfolds and this thing goes smoothly. Orderly Progression of language development: 1) Cooing (3 months) 2) Babbling (4 months) 3) 1 word utterances (10 months) 4) 2 word sentences (24 months) If a child doesn’t talk you should get him checked When a baby who hears more than one language they get the sound system down, they tend to speak the language better or pick it up faster if they want to learn it later in life or grow up learning. Development is orderly because it is based on maturation: genetic instructions, that causes various bodily and mental functions to occur in sequence 1) Maturation sets the basic course of development, while experience adjusts it. (Genetic instructions that occurs, when the body ready to function) If you don’t hear language first few years it’s not going to develop later Every child who is exposed to different language, they just become fluent in both. 1) Maturation 2) External learning COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Cognitive development: the emergence of the ability to think and understand 1) How the physical world works 2) How our mind represents the world 3) How other minds represents the world Metacognition: how child reflects upon their thoughts, think about their own thinking Process of how a child develops and think How our mind thinks about stuff Piaget: Biologists who had kids realized all of his kids have the same sorts of silly ideas at the same ages He said that ifALL kids have same silly ideas than it must be the brain acting He considered kids as little scientists who deal with their own perception of world. They built their own understanding of the world from what they know, and basic concepts of what they learn about. Also said that child comes to the world with lot of knowledge and spatial location. They develop more with emotions and physical interactions. 1. Cognitive development results from biological development shaped by experiences with the environment 2. Children gain knowledge by constructing reality out if experiences 3. Children uses schemas to organize experiences Schemas: general concepts, involving theories about models of the way the world works Goal is equilibrium keeping schemas consistent with experiences. Whole drive is to make sense of things. To keep your ideas with the world and to keep it in an equilibrium Assimilation: Child first try to integrate new information with existing schemas If assimilation doesn’t work they change, and add their understanding to their schemas. EX: Kids who only knew about small pets like cats and a rabbit, when taken to zoo were shown lions and tigers, tries to modify their understanding and inferred that there are small animals that you could play with and big ones that are scary. Accommodation: If schemas can’t absorb the new information then the existing schemas are altered to fit the new information Mental growth involves major qualitative changes, represented by stages of cognitive development 1) Sensory motor Intelligence (0-2 months) 2) Preoperational Period (2-6 Months) 3) Concrete Operational Period (6-11 months) 4) Formal Operational Period (11 & up) Operational Period Means logical thinking Sensory Motor Period 1 Child experiences the world though actions and senses (movement) 2 Child develops basic schemas Any time they do something and it causes a reaction they get excited Ex: toys with beeps or playing peek-ah-boo 3 Begins to act intentionally 4 Shows the beginning of Object Performance: understanding that objects continue to exist even if the child is not in sensory contact with them Peek-ah-boo: the act of disappearing and reappearing that excites them. Just like hiding their toys or walking away from them makes them think that you disappeared. An object exists when you have contact with it 5 Develops stranger anxiety Preoperational stage 1) Child can represent a things in words and images 2) Uses intuitive rather than logical reasoning 3) Common misconceptions of the world: A) Inanimate objects are alive B) Everything is causal C) Fooled by appearances D) Can’t tell real from imagined 4) Lacks Conservation: the understanding that an object can retain a property under a variety of conditions To gain conservation, must learn: A. Focus on operations rather that results B. Transformation are reversible C. Focus on more than one dimensions at a time 5) Egocentric: child can only see the world from his/her point of view 6) Begins to develop a theory of mind: the different understanding that other people have different ideas and understanding Intelligence, maturation determines how a person move into formal operation Only about 30% ofAmericans move into formal operation stage Concrete Operations: Involves thinking about things with own slope of knowledge Things in their own frame of reference 1. Can think logically about concrete objects and events 2. Understands how actions can affect or transform concrete objects 3. Understand conversation 4. Has reversibility and transformation Child comes out of the Sensory motor thoughts. Now they have theory of mind and how people think, so it has an adults thoughts Formal Operations: Someone who is a concrete thinker will think its stupid when asked what a color of the bear is when told that it just passed by the back door of kitchen window. While a Formal Operation thinker will try to reason and find clues that will help them get the color of the bear 1. Reasoning ability expands from concrete thinking to abstract thinking. 2. Can now use symbol and imagined realities to systematically reason understands a. Formal logical properties b. Hypothetico-deductive reasoning c. Difference between abstract and empirical truth d. Can think about possibilities 3. Can make abstract moral judgments Can decide what’s morally right and wrong 4. Can think about GOD in deeper terms 5. Think about how ideals can be reached 6. More sophisticated thinking about self and others Being able to understand that other person could have a different beliefs that their own Increasingly sophisticated cognition may be due to development of the frontal cortex (Because of more cells/neurons) 1. Gradual myelination of the frontal lobes 2. Slow process takes most, if not all of adolescence SOCIALDEVELOPMENT Social Development: developing a more complex sense of self and more complex social relationships Problems with Piaget: 1. Development is a continuous process He explained general cases, kids move slowly, and differently from other kids 2. Children express their mental abilities and operations at an early age 3. Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition Most of the times we live in concrete operations, so its about whether you can move into formal operational thinking 4. Thinking is too logical for Piaget Lot of thinking is intuitive Vygotsperky saw cognitive development differently 1. Believed children develop through interactions with members of their own cultures 2. Zone of Proximal Development: the range of accomplishments that are beyond what a child could alone do but can do with help and guidance. Parents work with child right at developmental phase 3. Depends on Three Fundamental Skills: A. Joint Attention: the ability to focus on what another person is focused on Kids are good at what others are doing, they’re magnets to adults B. Social Referencing: The ability to use another person’s reactions as information about the world When things are new, child looks at adults to see their reaction C. Imitation: The ability to do what another person does Kids imitate all the time. You should show them just a little bit more than they could, so they get it when they’re an adult Piaget: Moral thinking shifts from 1. Realism to relativism Realism: what’s happening right in front of them Relativism: to accommodate your understanding and adjusts your assessment 2. Prescriptions to Principles Prescriptions: following the norms, rules of behavior like a set of guidelines to follow. Like this is right and that’s wrong Principles: ?? 3. Outcome to Intentions Outcome: What happens Intentions: What was intended, what happened in the situation Kholberg expanded Piaget’s Ideas: Kholberg said that morality changes, with different moral development with different moralities stages Interested on how people decide, how do people know what was right and wrong. Connected moral reasoning to Piaget’s stages of Cognitive Development Main point is one value sometimes exceeds other value. Piaget values how you arrive at the decision 1. Preconventional Morality  Preoperational Thinking 2. Conventional Morality  Concrete  Operational Thinking 3. Postconventional Morality  Formal Operational Thinking You can’t go forward from Preconventional to Postconventional without going through Conventional. But you can go back to Preconventional from Postconventional without having to go through the 2 level Preconventional Morality: (concrete operation) the morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor If its benefits you, you do it. EX: Jonny taking the cookie when mom is in the shower Conventional Morality: The extent to which it conforms to social rulesmorality of an action is primarily determined by the You follow/ make decisions based on external things like religion influences you Johnny is old, so he doesn’t take the cookies now because now he thinks its morally wrong, and its stealing Postconventional Morality: The morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflects core values. Problems with Kohlberg (Kohlberg things answers involves justice) 1) Reasoning may differ based on context 2) Moral thinking may or may not correlate with moral behavior 3) Compassion VS. Justice Justice: localizes some professions like Nurse, Teacher, Social Worker, Etc.… Careers change how you behave. 4) Moral reasoning may be based on emotional reaction a. Moral intuitionist perspective; perceptions of right and wrong are evolutionary emotional reactions Lot of our decisions are gut decisions Moral Development 1. Physical punishment makes children less likely to develop conscience and less likely to internalize their parents morality 2. Children with good relationship with their parents develop a stronger conscience at an earlier age The things that make children most likely to obey and respect their parents are when they have a good relationship with their parents.Any type of physical punishment doesn’t achieve any of the desired goals most of the time. Erikson’s Stages of Social Development 1) 8 stages, each involving a particular social challenge 2) Meeting the challenge successfully, moves to the next stage in a state of good emotional health 3) Not successfully meeting the challenge leads to problems which will effect the outcome of later stages Social Development: How we change socially and develop through interactions with people If you do resolve challenge in the stage, when you go to the next stage you will be in a good shape. If you’re not, you will encounter trouble later. EX: Children who were not able to read in 1 grade were more likely to have trouble in other classes, like math when they can’t read problems, or not being able to read their geography class notes. Its like you still have baggage from the last stage, so you would want to resolve it Infancy: (Birth through 18-months) most important stage 1. Challenge; Trust versus Mistrust Trust vs. Mistrust develops from the main caretaker of the child 2. Based on whether or not a child’s needs are reliably met Understanding the child’s needs Responding appropriately and rapidly Children whose parents paid attention to them when they were baby feel that the world is a secure place, and its okay to interact with other people. While the ones whose don’t tend to distant themselves socially. Toddlerhood: (18 months through 3 years) 1. Challenge,Autonomy versus. Shame/Doubt Autonomy: Do it for yourself, what other person has done it for you Ex: Little Johnny being able to tie his shoelaces, which were done for him by someone else, makes him proud that he can do that. Doubt: questioning your ability Guilt: feeling like you yourself must have done something wrong hence you feel like a bad person 2. Based on whether the child has good experiences attempting to do things independently When child is not being able to do anything, because they’re little, they try harder to do things and they do it bad. So they look at their parents for their reactions. If they do it bad, a parent should support them. When little Johnny is tying shoelaces encourage him by saying “Wow! You did a great job1” “I m proud of you” Preschool: (3-6 years) 1. Challenge; Initiative versus Guilt Initiative: your own idea Guilt: embarrassed 2. Based on whether the child can initiative original tasks and carry out personal plans Elementary School: (6years to puberty) 1. Challenge: Competency (industry) versus Inferiority 2. Depends on whether the child can do things well or correctly compared to other kids or to the standards 1 time kids are exposed to their performan
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