Black Ink = PowerPoint lecture
Blue Ink = class lecture on that particular slide or topic that was not on the slide.
Red Ink = Examples related to that particular topic
Green Ink = Definitions and important terms
Personality: Enduring patterns of thought, feelings and behavior.
In this lecture we will encounter something new for us. So far we have learned about people in
general. Area that looks at individual personality is a very widely used idea.
1. Describe the structure of personality
2. Study individual differences in personality
Trait Theory: Personality is defined by a set of basic traits
Trait: a relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way.
Enduring: Something that exists overtime. Like a characteristics that has been there forever, and
makes up who you’re. Thoughts, feelings, behavior about everything that makes you, you.
Behaviorist + NeoFreudian
cognitive = (Jung)
Psychodynamic Object relations 02/25/2014 02/25/2014
Characteristics of personality traits
1. Traits exist on a continuum
Traits are exactly what you think about when asked about someone’s Personality
EX: When asked to describe best friend’s personality, one might give all their traits, like she’s
very caring, friendly, funny, outgoing, smart, etc.
Trait is something that is true about a person
A. People fall at different points
So, you’re either shy or you’re not
2. Traits should allow predictions about behavior in novel situations
Traits and situation together produces behavior.
3. Traits should allow many behaviors to be summarized by that trait.
Traits also allows you to make prediction about other people behavior
4. Traits great personal consistency over time
A. Two behavior that seems different may reflect the same underlying trait
Most basic personality trait doesn’t change, but it just expressed differently at different age.
EX: Little kids when in elementary school would express aggression by punching and shoving
other kids around. Later on when they’re teens they might express aggression verbally (cursing),
or drive aggressively.
5. People tend to overestimate person constancy in others and in themselves
We tend to feel like other people are more predictable
We like to understand that we understand relationships better 02/25/2014
EX: Jane who is always reserved and shy in class, goes to party, people will not expect that of
her because she is shy in class.
5. Interaction between traits and situation determines behaviors
A. People behave consistently within, but not between, types of situations
Behavior in any given situation comes from the traits we have
EX: People who work better in a pressuring situation, so when they are not under pressure they
don’t do as well as they would under pressure.
B. Division between high and low self-monitors
1. High: alter their behavior to appeal to people in specific situations
They monitor themselves. They care what other people think about them.
EX: Salesman trying to sell a car, once he finds out that the customer is not looking for the car he
is appealing for, he will change his script and make an appeal for a car that the customer wants.
2. Low-Self Monitors: Care less about how they appear to others and behave consistently across
Care less about other people’s judgments. They are much better when you don’t change your
EX: When these people get promotion and are the new boss of their colleagues, it comes easy to
them if they want to ratify their colleague’s mistake. While high monitors will find it hard
because they’re afraid their colleague will think bad about them.
Personality Tests: Tests to identify individual personality traits
What individual looks like
1. Two major types of tests 02/25/2014
A. Structured (objective) personality tests
Very straight forward
B. Unstructured (projective) personality tests
You describe things on test based on your interpretation. You project your personality in this
Test is indication of what’s going on, but every psychological test has issues. They have issues of
reliability and validity (consistency)
Reliability: Is it reliable, based on what it measure, how credible it is.
Validity: Does the test measure what you think it’s measuring? (FACE vs. CONTENT)
Space Validity: Like if you measure the table with a ruler, you will get same measurement as
long as you measure it right, or when you’re under stress your pupils dilating.
Identity: does the test measure what it’s supposed to measure
Test of Ability (Achievement)
MCAT: Its long, requires patience, it tests how patient you’re as a person, because that’s a key
personality trait needed in medical field
LSAT: For law school, it measure logic, how logically can you think.
SAT: Achievement test of what you know right now, and not what you can do in the future.
Test of Potential
What you can do, like your skills, abilities, etc.
IQ Test: There have been arguments about whether it measures your Potential orAbility Test
It fairly measures ranges of math and academic reliability
Also there have been questions of whether it measures intelligence or logical learning 02/25/2014
Structured (Objective) Personality Test
1. Assess personality along several scales, each of which measures a personality trait
You answer very straightforward questions like True/False
2. Hundreds of true/false questions, each of which assess a personality trait
They’re long, there are 100’s of questions where there are so many questions measuring same
trait but just asking questions differently to accurately describe the trait
3. Score on each scale indicates the degree to which that trait characterizes the person
Score characterizes where you’re on the continuum. Like how much you have that in you
compared to the rest of other people who took the test
Example Test: MMPI
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): the most widely researched and
clinically used of all personality tests. It was originally developed to identify emotional disorders
Given the most
MMPI consists of 10 scales which are evaluated together
You feel like you’re always sick
What you think it is. Sad, and stuff
3. Conversation Hysteria 02/25/2014
Tendency to mask. When you take an emotional problem and covert it into a physical symptom
you don’t have. You can’t face fear/anxiety
EX: Soldiers in the war, when they fall or get injured and when they’re ready to go back in the
camp, would make excuse like they can’t lift their leg up, while in reality they’re perfectly fine,
but they’re just scared.
4. Psychopathic deviance
Its the bad one. Antisocial Personality Disorder. Lack of consciousness, and doesn’t have a very
good connection to morality
5. Masculine – Feminine
Like being Masculine or Feminine. Literally like how you are. Male or Female.
Stability of emotions
Jealousy or low in anxiety
All kind of energy. Enthusiastic
Problem: people may misrepresent themselves.
Handled by using validity scales
1. Lying scales 02/25/2014
Questions about what we do ordinarily. But sometimes people are not honest, so it’s not valid.
Once you notice that the person is lying by their answer choice, you can infer the test is not
2. Bizarre Scale
These people who take it make themselves seem very bizarre. Usually these are people who want
to get away from court, or military duty, or something like that.
Have low predictive Validity (.30)
IQ Test: Highly valid about school, like how good you’re in school. But not valid regarding job
Unstructured (projective) Personality Tests
Aproblem with structured personality tests someone who is lying to himself.
Aperson who is lying to himself.
Unstructured tasks are designed to get past the person’s own defenses.
The person given an unstructured task; the structure the person gives that task indicates
They’re designed to get under people’s conscious.
Notion:An idea that these people, so they lie,
You present what you wear.
Example Test: ThematicAppreciative Test (TAT)
People express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about
People shown pictures of different scenes when asked to describe what was happening, took
basic ideas from their life experiences in a story.
They’re shown pictures, but the results are in content of what do you see.
It shows less personality but more of the themes of different in their personality 02/25/2014
Example Test: Rorschach Inkblot Test
Uses a set of 10 inkblots to identify people’s inner by analyzing their interpretations of the bolt.
Ex: People shown the inkblot picture in the slide, were saying it’s a polar bear standing on a tree.
Acracked/fractured image, etc..
Projective Tests: Criticisms
Critics argue that projective tests lack both reliability (consistency of results) and validity
(predicting what it is supposed to).
Lot of studies has found that movement doesn’t define creativity.
1. Trained raters come up with different interpretations (reliability) of the test for the same
2. Projective tests may misdiagnose a normal individual as pathological (validity)
Groups of were given psychological tests, and they’re shown:
These tests are useful when a therapist wants to know the person better. These tests are not valid.
Internet test are not valid either. Too many individual differences, so you almost can’t get what
1. Traits can be classified by using adjectives (language), which may be organized in a small
They’re describes in language. There are 1000’s of words describing the same trait. How do you
know if you have a unique trait?
2. Factors analysis sort’s trait items into small dimensions. Researchers have argued how many
core factors exist.
Take all answers and group them in smallest set of traits. Questions that have to do with being
shy and reserved are all grouped in one cluster to evaluate a person’s traits. 02/25/2014
Big 5 Personality Theory
Big Five: 5 major personality traits, each of which is expressed in a hierarchy of lower level
1. Extraversion: Someone who is outgoing, social.
2. Agreeableness: Easy to get along with.
Very warm, friendly, outgoing, helpful, not jealous, qualities you want in a roommate.
3. Conscientiousness: Kind of like holding conscious of themselves.Aware of ones behavior
4. Emotional Stability(Neuroticism): Secure, calm. Happy people
Psychotic: Lot of trouble feeling comfortable in their life. Mental break with the reality, not
secure and unhappy people.
5. Openness to experience: Someone who absorbed music and culture, tend to be more open.
People who are more cognitively and socially flexible.
On the other end: you could have very rigid people, and they are clearly connected with what’s
happening to them.
Hierarchical structure of traits
People high in Neuroticism tend to be more anxious, shy, and moody and low self esteemed.
They’re sensitive to feedback and upset about feedback. Hard for them to bounce back when
Describe personality in wide range of cultures
1. Different cultures use different trait labels, but they seem to describe the same qualities
Person who is of different cultures tend to have a different definition of a certain trait
2. But, when people in other cultures are allowed to generate and organize personality traits, the
arrangement is not always the same as the BIG 5. 02/25/2014
Problem: Descriptive, but not explanatory
Tells us what personality looks like but not why.
Descriptive predictive not explanatory. We know what someone’s personality looks like. We
don’t know why they would do something. Since you can’t change someone’s personality, you
Eysenk: Tries to resolve this by linking traits to biological systems.
Argues that personality can be reduced down to two heritable polar dimensions, extraversion-
introversion and emotional stability-instability
Because some aspects of your biology is this that’s why your personality is this way.
Biology is not correlated to personality but its causal.
The personality system arises from biological system.
1. Extraverts have chronically under aroused nervous systems
a. May have under reactive NT systems (especially those relying on norepinephrine and
They’re people who are chronically when left alone feel lethargic, sluggish and tired. They
constantly want to keep moving.
End point extravert: Chronically high extraverts. They feel overloaded when pushed too far.
Their nervous system is not stimulated so they have to do it by performing risk-taking activities
to feel the adrenaline, surgeons, etc.
They don’t need a controlled risk
2. Sensation seeking is the characteristics of an extravert. 02/25/2014
They like caffeine but hate pain medicines
They respond very well to conditioning situation, and they don’t mind punishment either. Like
they don’t care for it.
1. Introverts have chronically over aroused nervous system
2. Associated with inhibited temperament, characterized by a fear of novelty
A.Associated with an over reactive brain and attempts to compensate for it.
Introverts protect themselves from over stimulation. Need less risky occupation. In conditioning
situation, they don’t like it but will do great, but they try not to get punished.
Heritability of Traits
Basic personality traits seem to be highly heritable
1. Identical twins are far more similar than fraternal twins
2. Adopted kids are far more like their biological parents than their adoptive parents
Heritability is disposition, not given.
They’re (kids) given a range of trait, what happens (traits, like how they develop) depends on
where they wind up.
Family effects (shared environment) are not strong
1. Adoptive siblings show very low personality correlations (.05) as do adoptive
kids and their adoptive parents (.04) 02/25/2014
Certain personality profile attracts different religious beliefs.
What’s inherited is a basic stuff that leads you to the common/
2. Identical twins raised apart (.05) have personalities as similar as twins raised
What growing up doesn’t have a strong effect on your trait. It’s
what traits you get from genes in terms of basic personality
You inherit traits, not the outcome. Genetics sets boundaries, basic
parameters not the personality.
When Ego resolves conflict between Id and Superego
3. Reaction Formation
To get into a reaction formation you have to get into displacement first.
You have unacceptable behavior to your superego, and its closely related to a particular person
(its very intensely meant towards one person) but you flip that negative behavior and show an
EX: Young Johnny has a baby sister, and now that she’s born everyone just pays attention to her,
so he is jealous. But, when asked Johnny doesn’t you love your little sister? He would say yes
that he likes her, but when he’s playing with her, he would be mean to her like when he hugs her
he crushes her hard, or while lifting her he would drop her. That’s his way of reacting to the love
portrayed towards her.
When you take an unacceptable wish/desire and put it on another person.
EX: Astep mom who doesn’t like her step son, when she gets together with her friends would
say that he’s