UGS 302 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Nostratic Languages, Historical Linguistics, Animal Communication

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3 Oct 2016
L&H Lecture 2: Foundations of effective communication skills in Interdisiplinary Settings
Animal communication: visual (badges/displays), auditory (howling/chirping), tactile
(grooming/rubbing), chemical (dogs urinating/pheromones)
3 important features dierentiating Animal Communication vs Human Communication
1. displacement: capability of language to communicate about things not immediately
present (temporally or spatially)
2. Duality of patterning: way that lang. can be divided into meaningful signs, that can
be subdivided into smaller elements
3. Discrete infinity/recursion: capacity of language for unbounded creativity
Deep Structure VS Surface structure
Deep: ways in which lang. is hardwired and organized to be processed in the brain
Surface: basic surface word order
TOnal vs. non-tonal languages
Tone: a lang. in which dierences in word meaning are signaled by dis. in pitch
Spoken Lang & Signed Languages
Thousands of languages are grouped into a new language families
Most linguistically heterogenous place on earth is Papua New Guinea
3 types of Language Classificaiton:
1. genetic classification
2. Linguistic typological classification (relative word order, morphology)
3. Areal classification
Genetic doesnt mean DNA, its categorization of languages according to the ancestor
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