PSY 3000 Lecture Notes - Observational Error, Huntsman Cancer Institute, Schwinn Bicycle Company

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18 Sep 2013
Department
Course
Professor
Intro to Statistics
KNOWLEDGE
- Four general approaches to knowledge
o Authority: asking for information or knowledge, includes the internet
o Intuition: The feeling you get when you know something.
o Empiricism: Something you observe through any of your senses
o Logic: Knowing things by thinking them through
SCIENTIFIC APPROACH
- The scientific approach to knowledge relies mainly on empiricism and logic
- Science requires (among other things)=
o Empirical referent= Must be testable and observable
o Science is self-correcting= When data doesn’t match, the theories will
fix.
o Scientific theories must be testable = Otherwise is it not a theory
- Nature of scientific “proof”= We rarely have proof of anything. They are just
theories, guesses, or logic.
- Experiments= confirms, disconfirm, pit one against the other
POPULATIONS, SAMPLES, AND SAMPLING PREOCEDURES
POPULATIONS AND SAMPLES
- Populations is everyone or everything we are trying to study.
- For example
o All women in the world
o American men
o 5th graders in the US
o South American yaks
o All Schwinn bicycles made in 1986
o Anyone with a genetic disposition for skin care
o Scores (population of IQ scores)
- But it is too hard to measure everyone so we…
TAKE A SAMPLE
- A sample is those members of a population we actually measure
o 100 women from different countries
o 50 men from US and Canada
o 10 5th graders in Davis County
o 25 yaks from south America
o 13 schwinn bikes
o Family members of skin cancer victims treated at the Huntsman
cancer institute last year
o 50 IQ scores
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