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Lecture 20

GEOL 103 Lecture Notes - Lecture 20: Open-Pit Mining, Environmental Health, Remote Sensing


Department
Geology
Course Code
GEOL 103
Professor
Gray Dean
Lecture
20

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MINERAL RESOURCES
I. Mineral and Rock Resources
A. 9 elements account for 99.7% of the earths crust
a. Oxygen
b. Silicon
c. Aluminum
d. Iron
e. Calcium
f. Sodium
g. Magnesium
h. Potassium
i. Titanium
II. Types of Mineral Resources
A. Gemstones and semi-precious minerals
a. Diamonds
B. Metallic minerals
a. Ferrous minerals
i. Iron and related metals such as chromium
b. Nonferrous minerals
i. Gold, silver, copper etc
C. Non Metallic minerals
a. Structural minerals
i. Sand, Gravel
b. Industrial minerals
i. Non metals such as sulfur and asbestos
c. Energy minerals
i. Coal and uranium
D. Deposits: different mineral resources found in different geological settings
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III. Ore Deposits
A. Ore: rock in which a valuable or useful metal occurs at a concentration
sufficiently high, relative to average rocks to make it economically worth
mining
B. Ore is rock containing metal with a sufficiently high CF that is economical
to mine
a. 2 factors that determine profitability of mining ore
i. the value of extracted mineral or metal and its concentration in the
ore
ii. The higher concentration, the richer the ore
IV. Concentration Factor (CF)
A. CF=Cd/Cc
i. Cd: concentration in deposit
ii. Cc: average crustal concentration
B. The higher the CF, the richer the deposit
C. Reserves: ore deposits that have been identified but not yet exploited
V. Types of Mineral Deposits
A. Geological settings in which deposits of economically valuable rocks and
minerals form
i. Igneous ore deposits
1. as magma cools, it concentrates materials
2. after they have crystalized, lighter materials rise to the top of
magma chamber while heaver sink to the bottom
ii. Hydrothermal ore deposits
i. Magmas have water and other fluids dissolved in or associated
with them
ii. These migrating fluids deposit their dissolved minerals,
creating hydrothermal ore deposits
iii. Metals found in this type of deposit
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