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Lecture 4

IS 3003 Lecture 4: Notes - Ethical and Social Issues

5 Pages

IS - Information Systems
Course Code
IS 3003
Nasim Talebi

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IS3003 Ethical&SocialIssuesinBusiness Chapter 4 Ethics:​ Principles/Standards of right and wrong that individuals, acting as free moral agents, use to make choices and guide their behavior. I. KEY TECH TRENDS THAT RAISE ETHICAL ISSUES A. Doubling of Computer Power ➢ More orgs depend on computer systems for critical operations B. Rapidly Declining Data Storage Costs ➢ Orgs can easily maintain detailed databases on individuals C. Networking Advances and the Internet ➢ Copying data from one location to another and accessing personal data from remote locations are much easier D. Mobile Device Growth ➢ Tracking of individual cell phones E. Advances in Data Analysis Techniques ➢ Profiling:​ Combining data from multiple sources to create dossiers of detailed information on individual ➢ Non Obvious Relationship Awareness (NORA): ​Combining data from multiple sources to find obscure hidden connections that might help identify criminals or terrorists. II. BASIC CONCEPTS FOR ETHICAL ANALYSIS A. Definitions: ➢ Responsibility: ​Accepting the potential costs, duties, and obligations for decisions ➢ Accountability​: Mechanisms for identifying responsible parties ➢ Liability:​ Permits individuals (and firms) to recover damages done to them ➢ Due Process:​ Laws are well known and understood, with an ability to appeal to higher authorities. B. Ethical Analysis ○ Identify and clearly describe the facts ○ Define the conflict or dilemma and identify the higher-order values involved 1 ○ Identify stakeholders ○ Identify the options that you can reasonably take ○ Identify the potential consequences of your options. C. Candidate 6 Ethical Principles ➢ Golden Rule:​ Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. ➢ Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative:​ If an action is not right for everyone to take, it is not right for anyone. ➢ Descartes' Rule of Change:​ If an action cannot be taken repeatedly, it is not right to take at all. ➢ Utilitarian Principle:​ Take the action that achieves the higher or greater value ➢ Risk Aversion Principle:​ Take the action that produces the least harm or least potential costs ➢ Ethical "no free lunch" rule": ​Assume that virtually all tangible and intangible objects are owned by someone unless there is a specific declaration otherwise. III. MORAL DIMENSIONS OF THE INFORMATION AGE A. Information Rights and Obligations ➢ Information Rights (privacy): ​Claim of individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance or interference from other individuals, organizations, or state. Claim to be able to control information about yourself. ➢ Internet Challenges to Privacy   Cookies: Tiny ​text files​ downloaded by website to Server's are decentralizing visitor's hard drive. information to different people Identify visitor's browser and track visiso they don't have to keep all to site. the information. Cookies have a Can include computer info, browser lifespan. Cannot bring cookies type, given info to site. from other sites. Web Tiny invisible software programs Done by a 3rd party not beacons/Web embedded in email messages and web necessarily with consent. bugs/tracking pages. Monitor who is reading email files: message or visiting site. Used to evaluate the effectiveness of online marketing. Spyware: Software ​that secretly gathers More dangerous than information about users while they cookies or web bugs. browse the web. Can come hidden in free downloads; tracks online movements. 2 May transmit user's keystrokes or display unwanted ads. ➢ Social Engineering:​ Talking a person into revealing critical information that can be used to obtain personal information. ➢ Shoulder Surfing:​ Standing next to someone and watching as they fi
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