PSY 1013 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Humanistic Psychology
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Drive Reduction Theory
• The drive reduction theory is a theory proposing that certain
drives motivate us to act in ways that minimize aversive states.
• Examples: Hunger, thirst, and sexual frustration.
• When drives clash…
• While certain drives lead us to approach, others lead to
• As we draw near a goal, avoidance outweighs approach
◦ Explains phenomena like the difficulty of finishing
• Incentive theories propose that we are often motivated by positive
• Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic motivation
• Some needs take precedence over others
• Primary (biological) and secondary (psychological)
• Maslow's hierarchy of needs
• Created by Maslow, the father of humanistic psychology
◦ Humanistic psychology studies the potential of an
individual and his/her need for growth and self-
actualization. It is based on the fundamental belief that
people are innately good, and that deviating from this
natural tendency results in social and psychological
• Maslow has a pyramid of needs, otherwise known as the
hierarchy of needs.